How extensive should a company’s internal control system be? In today’s environment, this is a difficult question to answer. The reason being that some current business, legal, and social trends suggest that companies need to increase their emphasis on internal control, while other trends indicate just the opposite. Bank failures and widespread losses over the past two decades have elevated the importance of effective internal control within the formal financial sector worldwide. In the United States for example, bank failures rose over 200 percent in the 1980s partly due to fraud and mismanagement. Internationally, the collapse of Barings Bank and Yamaichi Securities further focused the financial sector’s attention on internal control. The Basle Committee analyzed the problems related to these losses and concluded that they probably could have been avoided had the banks maintained effective internal control systems (banking, a regulatory and auditing guide). In addition, a review of traditional banks affirmed that the implementation of effective internal control systems played an important role in reducing bank failures.
Internal control, the strength of every organisation, has become of paramount importance today in Nigeria banks. The reasons being that the control systems in any organization are a pillar for an efficient accounting system as well as achievement of organizational goals.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As part of its on-going efforts to address bank supervisory issues and enhance supervision through guidance that encourages sound risk management practices, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision issued a framework for the evaluation of internal control systems. A system of effective internal controls is a critical component of bank management and a foundation for the safe and sound operation of banking organizations. A system of strong internal controls can help to ensure that the goals and objectives of a banking organization will be met, that the bank will achieve long-term profitability targets, and maintain reliable financial and managerial reporting. Such a system can also help to ensure that the bank will comply with laws and regulations as well as policies, plans, internal rules and procedures, and decrease the risk of unexpected losses or damage to the bank’s reputation.
The Basel Committee, along with banking supervisors throughout the world, has focused increasingly on the importance of sound internal controls. This heightened interest in internal controls is, in part, a result of significant losses incurred by several banking organizations. An analysis of the problems related to these losses indicates that they could probably have been avoided had the banks maintained effective internal control systems. Such systems would have prevented or enabled earlier detection of the problems that led to the losses, thereby limiting damage to the banking organization.
A system of accounting and records keeping will not succeed in completely and accurately processing all transaction unless controls known as internal controls are built into the system. The purposes of such internal controls are to ensure that transactions are executed in accordance with proper general or specific authorisation and again to ensure that all transactions are properly recorded with the correct amount and in the appropriate account and in the proper accounting periods so as to permit preparation of financial statement in accordance with relevant legislation and accounting standards and for informed management decision making.
Internal control will ensure that errors and irregularities are avoided or made apparent. Internal control as a system comprise of the control environment and procedures .It includes all the policies and procedures adopted by the directors and management of an entity to assist in achieving their objectives of ensuring as far as practicable the orderly and efficient conduct of its business so as to safeguard assets, to prevent and detect fraud and error to ensure accuracy and completeness of accounting records and the timely preparation of reliable financial information (SAS 300.1)
The company code 1963, Act 197 section 123 states that “management will need to establish an effective accounting system comprising a number of controls”. In an attempt to do this there must be a well-defined organisational structure showing how responsibility and authority are delegated clearly defined communication channels or lines of reporting(i.e. upward , downward and horizontal lines of reporting) for attainment of corporate objectives. These controls are such that different people are assigned to do different task. No one person should fully record and process transactions from commencement to the end.
This means that a company can only achieve its corporate mission through the establishment of internal control system which makes sure that those policies and procedures which are laid down by management are efficient. Hence, it reduces the cost of operation without reducing effectiveness.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The regularity of fraud and misappropriation of funds is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of confidence in the minds of bank customers. Also, poor internal control system leads to increase in bank losses. Management is required to set up an internal control system but this system varies significantly from one organization to the next, depending on such factors as their size, nature of operations, and objectives. Since internal controls operate in an environment which influences its operations, proper care must be exerted into the implementation of these systems in other to achieve the utmost aim of the bank. This heightened interest in internal controls is, in part, a result of significant losses incurred by several banking organizations. An analysis of the problems related to these losses indicates that they could probably have been avoided had the banks maintained effective internal control systems. Such systems would have prevented or enabled earlier detection of the problems that led to the losses, thereby limiting damage to the banking organization.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research is intended to investigate the impact of internal control system in the circumstances of embezzlement and fraud detection in the bank.
Therefore the data to be collected in this exercise will be used to test the following hypothesis.
H1: Effective internal control system can help to prevent and detection of fraud in Mainstreet bank.
H0: That effective internal control system may not help to prevent and detect fraud in Mainstreet bank.
Research is poised to confirm true or otherwise, to achieve this purpose the research has formulated the above hypothesis. That the general financial management and control system as regard revenue and expenditure is effective, efficient and technical. Also the general financial management and control system as related to the public opinion is inadequate, ineffective, and this lacks improvement in its operation achievements which will hinder general development.
1.7 THE SIGNFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of the study would help the management of the bank to maintain an enhanced controlled environment by helping management and employees to establish and maintain an environment throughout the bank that sets a positive and supportive altitude towards internal control, reliable management, operating personnel for effecting internal control and internal audit for evaluating whether appropriate controls have been implemented and whether the internal controls are functioning as intended. Other significance of the study includes:
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The content of this research should not be seen as being totally exhaustive of all possibly situations available in the Nigerian banking sector on the theme of this study. This is due to the vast size of the banking sector and the boundless nature of the study under review. Therefore, the scope of this research is limited to the study carried out on Mainstreet Bank branch in Aba, Nigeria.
The limitations of this research work are as follows;
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Internal control: a control is “any action taken by management to enhance the likelihood that established objectives and goals will be achieved” [institute of internal auditors, 1993].in other words, controls are designed to ensure that organizations conform to standards or plans. Examples of controls include the use of sales or expense budgets, computer passwords, or even padlocks on warehouses.
Effectiveness – within this context of the study it means measure of productivity in utilizing an entity’s resources.
Efficiency- it means measure of cost control in performing recurring function within an entity
Fraud -intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual.
1.10 CHAPTER ORGANISATION
The whole study consists of chapters and the breakdown is as follows;
Chapter one highlights on the background of the study and explains the need and purpose of the study. It also goes on to talk about the statement of the problems, objectives, scope limitations as well as definition of terms.
Chapter two gives a conceptual framework about the literature review as well definition of terms.
Chapter three describes the research methodology and how the research was under taken.
Chapter four deals with findings from data collected, presentation and analysis of the result.
Chapter five is centred on the summary, recommendations and conclusions drawn from the study.
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