This research study is a comparative analysis of computerized accounting system and manual accounting system with reference to Ama breweries plc. and African petroleum plc. all in Enugu state. It is a survey research. The study is a comparative evaluation of computerized accounting system and manual accounting system to ascertain which one is more effective and efficient than the other. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources which include the use of questionnaires, personal observations, text books, journals and internet. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using Z-test statistics, while questionnaires were analyzed in tabular form using simple percentage. It was discovered that software accounting system is expensive to run, software accounting system handles larger volume of data than manual accounting system and software accounting system encourages fraud, and funds can be lost in organization with the use of software accounting system. As a result of the comparison between manual accounting system and computerized accounting system, to attain a larger volume of data and work accuracy in a shorter period it is better for organizations to use computerized accounting system to increase their efficiency. Those studying accounting as a profession should be introduced to both the theoretical and practical aspect of software accounting and to reduce funds lost through frauds and forgeries managers and accountants should provide software developers with progressive information relating to their business activities.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Accounting system according to an Italian monk, Luca Pacioli (1491), is the combination of personnel records and procedures that a business uses to meet its need for financial data. Financial accounting also encompasses the summary of information and presentation of periodic reports such as profit and loss statement and balance sheet. The historical firms of accounting were of different degree of sophistication according to the need and techniques of the time. This is why modern accounting is based on the double entry system and the recognition of the dual nature of each transaction and this gives a co-ordinate support for the control of all the transaction of a business.
Accounting system according to business dictionary is an organized set of manual and computerized accounting methods, procedures and controls established to gather, record, classify, analyze, summarize, interpret and present accurate and timely financial data for management decisions.
In spite of this, there are policies for reporting on an organization performance and current conditions. These policies increase the usefulness of report including their reliability and comparability. The policy that makes up acceptable accounting practices are determined by many individuals and groups and those policies are referred to as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Since accounting is a service activity, these rules reflect our society’s needs and not only on those of accountants. The financial Accounting standard Board (FASB) is another body or group that is seen as an independent group of seven full-time members with a large staff. This body has issued six statements of accounting concepts which help in guiding accounting standard setting. Many companies and organizations involve themselves in setting accounting rules/policies. They include investors, government agencies, politicians, unions, lenders and other business and non-business organizations.
Furthermore, there are two major types of methods used in recording accounting information, such methods are manual accounting system and software accounting system or computerized accounting system.
Manual accounting system extends and includes the method of processing, recording, journalizing transactions posting to the ledgers and preparing the financial statements which provide decision makers with useful information in making decisions. These decisions relate to the allocation and use of scarce economic resources such as money, land, labour and capital. These manual accounting systems are wholly used for preparing income tax returns, reports to managers, bills to customers and other forms of providing accounting information.
In addition, with manual accounting system, accountants and managers usually inspect the documents, journal ledgers and reports in the performance of testing and verification. Transaction can be traced from source documents to journals, general ledgers, printed report etc. Subsidiary ledgers can be posted and the total can be compared with control accounts. It is visually observed by the auditors or accountants to determine whether proper books of accounts or is being followed.
Technology is a main part of our modern society and business practices. It also plays a major important in accounting as it help in reducing the time, effort and cost of record keeping while improving clerical accuracy. Technology has distinct the way we store, process and summarize large masses of data which makes accounting free to increase its field.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In recent times, most companies and organizations have been using the manual form of operations in their accounting systems. Primarily, this manual accounting systems used to meet the organizational information requirement but this has been on consistent failure in recent times as a result of growth and diversification of business and technological advancement complexities in information technology to meet the current business demands.
Thus, companies and organizations had usually been faced with a number of problems in the use of this manual accounting system which involve lack of ability to handle sufficient volume of data in terms of speed and accuracy, insufficient data storage and retrieval system often resulting in loss of vital records, incorporating final updates, rampant report of frauds and forgeries in the use of the system, unseemliness of information which implies that information needed for effective decision making . This is repeatedly, as a result of poor retrieval and inability to collect large volume of data within the required time. All these problems include consequence in great loss of scarce resources and impeded organization growth, steadiness and advancement.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is a comparative analysis of software accounting system and manual accounting system.
The study aims at ascertaining the following objectives:
1. To evaluate whether frauds and forgeries are encourage in computerized accounting system i.e. software accounting system than the manual accounting system.
2. To examine whether software accounting system can handle large volume of data than the manual accounting system.
3. To study whether the use of software accounting system increases effectiveness and efficiency in organizations or companies than manual accounting system in reducing the amount of funds lost through frauds and forgeries.
4. To examine whether software accounting system is capable of storing, retrieving, analyzing, processing, summarizing and reporting rapidly than manual accounting system.
5. To show the operational and reporting system in both the manual accounting system and software accounting system.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The course of this research has picked up some interesting enquires and discussions which centered more on a comparative analysis of software accounting and manual accounting system in two companies Nigeria Breweries Plc. and Africa Petroleum Plc in Enugu State.
The following questions are put forward for the purpose of the study:
i. What are the measures taken to ascertain the extent to which fraud and forgery can be prevented and controlled using either of the accounting system?
ii. Can software accounting system handle large volume of data more than the manual accounting system?
iii. How effective and efficient is the use of software accounting system or manual accounting system?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has a lot of significance to the educational system and industrial environments.
1. It impart hold knowledge to the general public who may not have the opportunity of reading some relevant test on software accounting system as well as manual accounting system.
2. It creates new initiative in information expertise sub-sector.
3. Non-computer experts with little or no assistance will be exposed and encourage through this study.
4. It provides important literature for other researchers.
5. It will promote productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in industries since users satisfaction is assured as well as error free and speeding reporting system.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The coverage of this study is limited to the study of a comparative analysis of software accounting system and manual accounting system of which particular attention is given using two companies in Enugu as study. These companies are Nigeria breweries PLC (Enugu), African Petroleum PLC (Enugu).
1.8 COMPANIES PROFILE
> NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC
Nigeria Breweries Plc. was incorporated on November 6th, 1996 as Nigeria Breweries limited and was first commissioned in Lagos on 2nd June 1949, while other branches were established such as Aba branch in 1957, Kaduna 1963, Ibadan in 1982 and Enugu in 1995.
> AFRICAN PETROLEUM PLC
The history of African petroleum Plc. dates back to 1945 when the British petroleum company limited bought up the assets of the Atlantic Refining Company on the West Africa coast. In1964, AP Nigerian limited was incorporated in Nigeria. As an associate of the world wide AP group, it marketed petroleum throughout the federal Republic of Nigeria. In 1973, the company changed from a private company to public company, when 40% of its shares were sold to Nigerian citizens in compliance with provisions of Nigerian Enterprises promotion decree of 1977.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There is no research work or study that is entirely hitch-free. During the course of this study, a lot of problems prompted up. The main limitation of this research work is time factor. The researcher had limited time with which he used in completing the study. This also created a room for other problems and made data collection a difficult task.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SYSTEM: It is an interrelated or interacting element organized into a complex whole. A system is a group of interrelated components working together towards a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process.
SOFTWARE: It is a general term for the various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. Software is the programs and symbolic languages that control the function of the hardware.
MANUAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: These are those system in which source document are posted by hands which extends and includes method of processing, recording, journalizing transactions posting to the ledgers, sales, cash receipt and other type of journals.
ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: It is an organized set of manual and computerized accounting methods, procedures and controls established to gather, record, classify, analyze, summarize, interpret and present accurate and timely financial data for management decisions.
ACCOUNTING: It is a system for recording; classifying, measuring, interpreting financial data for an organization to enable users make assessment and decision making.
COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING: It is what businesses used to track their financial information.
COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: It is a system used by business for recording their financial information. Every time a transaction happens, an entry is made into the system.
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