1.1 Background of the Study
The use of alcohol and its misuse by students on campus is no more news. Findings proved that about eighty of every hundred tertiary institution students consume alcohol and fifty percent of these consumers do so heavily. This heavy drinking among tertiary institution students is not without consequences. Among the consequences include: alcohol toxification, academic regression, fatal injuries, violence, STDs, loss of lives, damage to properties, and jeopardy to future prospects. These negative effects are not only suffered by the students who engage in such heavy drinking, fellow students, especially the innocent ones also suffer the consequences incurred by heavy drinking. These may include: sexual harassment and diverse kinds of physical assaults. More so, the institution is not left out among the sufferers of the resulting consequences. Often times, too many resources are expended in order to address the damages such addiction may have incurred on the facilities and infrastructures of the institution.
Alcohol is a liquid that is being consumed by drinking and can be of different types or forms such as wine, beer, and liquor which after being drunk gets absorbed by the stomach and then goes into all body tissues through the blood stream (partnership for Drug free kids, 2014).
Alcohol in its purest form is colorless, odorless, and inflammable and contains no nutrients for the body (drugs. i.e.). The different type of alcohol in its purest form includes methanol, ethanol, propane and other component made up of hydrocarbon and hydroxyl group, but the alcohol that is contained in drinks such as wine, beer and other alcoholic drinks is known as ethanol. (Palo Alto medical foundation, 2013).
In many part of the world, drinking alcohol is a behavior that is socially acceptable and that light drinking may be good for the health, especially for the heart. But such health benefits of alcohol cannot be compared to the numerous health risks associated with its consumption. This means that the, the health detriment of alcohol outweighs its benefits. The National Health Service (2014) asserts that, although drinking less lowers the risks of harm caused to the health, drinking has no guaranteed safe level.
Alcohol has been discovered to have direct effect on the health. This effect includes diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cirrhosis of the liver. It also aggravates the intensity of diseases such as HIV because its weakens the immune system and effects positive response to antiretroviral drug (health promotion agency, n, d). The Australian drug foundation, (2010) have linked alcohol to both short and long term health effects. The short term effect include confusion, blurred vision, poor muscle control, nausea and sleep while the long term effects includes damage to many part of the body such as permanent impairment of the brain and liver function emotional difficulties such as depression and problems with relationships. Many other long term effects identified by the foundation include but not limited to cancer, brain and liver injury, memory loss, changes in red blood cells, flushing and blushing of the skin, stomach ulcer, hepatitis, impotence and death may result in severe cases.
Health Promotion Agency. (n.d). Over all body effects. Retrieved August 17, 2014, from:http://www.alcohol.org.nz/alcohol-you/your-body-alcohol/body-effects/overall-body-effects
The World Health Organization say the use of alcohol is the world’s third leading problem after childhood malnourishments and unsafe sex (Kelly, 2013). Alcohol negative effect is not only limited to the health of its consumers, it has adverse effects on the society at large. Alcohol does not only a personal problem but a society one. Relationship problems like break ups, work problems like poor performance, and legal problem like drinking and driving have been linked to alcohol (Australian Drug Foundation, 2010). All these destructive behaviors in today’s society cannot be overemphasized and alcohol stands to be one of the causes of these behaviors (DrugAbuse.com, 2014).
While it is true that alcohol consumption which often in the form of alcohol beverages, is connected with a lot of health and societal problem, there are conditions responsible. Most if not all of the scholarly literatures consulted did not only linked the detrimental effect of alcohol to alcohol consumption but to abnormal alcohol consumption. Several adjectives were used in different scholarly literature to indicate the extent and manner of consumption that result in such effects. The center for Disease control and prevention (2014) put if that, excessive alcohol use has immediate effects that increase the risk of many harmful health conditions. Drinking too much, either on a single occasion or over time is very harmful directly to the health and indirectly to the society. Wendy(2013) state that alcohol has a positive effect in the case of moderate use and negative effect in the case of excessive use.
Alcohol consumption has therefore been categorized based on the manner and extent of consumption. According to drugAbuse.com,(2014). There are three categories of alcohol consumption-moderate use, abuse, and alcoholism. Moderate use involves consuming just enough for the body handling capacity while abuse has to do with consuming more alcohol beyond the body handling capacity. Alcoholism which can also be referred to as alcohol addiction is a situation where there is physical and psychological dependence on alcohol such that it cannot be avoided. At this stage, the body without alcohol will function abnormally.
The National Health Service (2014) divides the alcohol consumption categories into Lower-risk drinking, increase risk drinking and higher risk drinking. The service exposed that lower risk drinking has a low risk of causing future harm because drinking is although consistent, but within limit. Low risk drinking is not safe because alcohol holistically is not completely safe. Increasing-risk drinking increases the risk of damage to the health and higher risk drinking has the highest risk of damage. The service further recommended that for low risk drinking men and women should not regularly drink more than 3-4units per day and 2-3units per day for men and women respectively while higher risk drinking is regularly drinking more than 8unit daily or 50units weekly for men and 6units daily or 35unit weekly for women.
It is therefore follows that while alcohol consumption is not completely safe, it is the abusive consumption of alcohol and alcohol dependence (alcoholism) that results in much health, social and environmental problems the world today.
The center for disease control and prevention (2014) recorded that excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 35percent of child maltreatment, 2 out 3 incidents of intimate partner violence and 88,000 yearly deaths in united state
World health Organization (WHO) has raised fresh alert over harmful use of alcohol even as it linked the habit to rising cases of non-communicable diseases and sudden deaths. According to the new report titled Global status report on alcohol and health 2014, which was Released by WHO, worldwide, 3.3 million deaths WHO said, equivalent to 5.9 percent of global deaths (7.6 percent for men and 4.0 percent for women). In comparison, HIV/AIDS is responsible for 2.8 percent, tuberculosis causes 1.7 percent of deaths and violence is responsible for just 0.9 percent.
in 2014 were due to harmful use of alcohol; alcohol consumption not only lead to dependence but increases people’s risk of developing more than 200 diseases, including liver cirrhosis and some cancers; harmful drinking can lead to violence and injuries and harmful use of alcohol makes people more susceptible to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia.
While in Nigeria, Coleman (2010) states that numerous highway accidents and criminal activities have been a result of alcohol consumption.
The Media with its ability to motivate, mobilize and stimulate courses of action could be one of the factors influencing alcohol consumption. According to Joel, (2004) alcohol affiliated media programs such as portrayals of drinking, placement of alcoholic products; event sponsorship by alcohol affiliated organizations may have effect on alcohol consumption and problems on student. Ultimate search also known as Gulder Ultimate Search is a Nigeria reality Television series that is created and sponsored by Nigerian Breweries plc (Wikipedia, 2014). Ultimate Search as an alcoholic Beverages company sponsored Television reality show is most likely to be thought of as motivating alcohol consumption in Nigeria. But studies have not been carried out to find out whether Gulder Ultimate Search influence alcohol consumption among Undergraduates in Niger State or not or Nigeria as a whole.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Any issue that affects the social, physical, environmental and economic well being of any nation becomes a problem to that nation that need to be solved. Due to its effects alcohol consumption; abuse and alcoholism have become a societal problem in Nigeria and the world at large. According to Spesh (2012), the consequences of alcohol abuse or addiction are devastating to such extent that both national and international organizations around the world are worried about its spread among the Nigerian youths. These consequences includes but not limited to severe health issues, social violence among students, robbery, mental issues and lawlessness. Spesh (2012) also put it that. “A growing concern in the minds of socio-political analysts and trend observers however, has been the growing number of Nigerian youths that get attracted to, and often times, remain stock in the pool of hard drugs and substance abuse.”
When it comes to the issue of alcohol consumption, Nigeria really have problem. In fact, Nigeria ranks 27th position worldwide in alcohol consumption among adults 18 and above in litters per capital per year and as a result, the leading African country in alcohol consumption (Kachy, 2012).
Pela (1989) in a study of alcohol established that the problems posed by alcohol consumption, especially by female are increasing .use disorders among Nigerian University Student by Adewuya, Ola and Abola(2007), it was concluded that, alcohol use disorders are common among Nigerian College Students. Another study on influence of alcohol abuse on crime among student in obio/Akpor Local Government Area of River State of Nigeria by Oriji. (2012), found that the influence of alcohol abuse among youths obviously makes them commit crimes in the study area. It therefore follows that the rate at which Nigerian youth’s lose control over alcohol consumption is on the increase. According to Suleiman, (2013). Alcoholics and other drug abusers have high rate of anti-social behaviors and the rate at which youths in Nigeria indulge in anti-social activities reveals the future danger that await the country if drastic actions are not taken to curtail the spreading trend. This calls for the adoption of a proactive measures to avert the impeding danger associated with alcohol consumption especially its abuse and dependency among youth in the country. This study therefore set to investigates the question: To what extent can it be argued that Ultimate Search has influenced Undergraduates in Niger State to consume alcoholic beverages.
1.3 Objective of Study
This study aims at establishing a relationship between Ultimate Search reality show and alcohol consumption among Undergraduates in Niger State so as to help proffer solution to the alcohol-related problems.
Specifically the study sets to:
1. Find out if Undergraduates in Niger State watch Ultimate Search show.
2. Find out if Undergraduates in Niger State consume alcoholic beverages.
3. Find out if watching of Ultimate Search Show influence the consumption of alcoholic beverages among Undergraduates in Niger State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were postulated to guide the study:
1. Do Undergraduates in Niger State watch Ultimate Search Show?
2. Do Undergraduates in Niger State consume alcoholic beverages?
3. Does watching of Ultimate Search increase consumption of alcoholic beverages among Undergraduates in Niger State?
1.5 Justification for the Study
The drive of this study is to probe into how Ultimate Search Show has been effective in influencing Undergraduates in Niger State in drinking alcohol. It will be very pertinent if I say findings of this study will serve as a guide for the government and other regulatory bodies and NGOs to find a path in right direction in their bid to curb drinking of alcohol and reduce alcohol related diseases in the country. Also, it will be useful and worthwhile for student and scholars especially in the media and medical arena in search for lasting solution to the menace caused by alcohol drinking. Lastly mishap like car crash can be forestalled and this kind of report can be very useful to Nigerian Road Safety Commission (FRSC).
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This study was specifically anchored on knowing the influence of Ultimate Search on the consumption of alcoholic beverages among Undergraduates in Niger State. The scope of the study was limited to only the Undergraduates in Niger State which comprises of students in Federal University of Technology Minna and Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
It is relevant to define terms like Influence, consumption, Alcoholic beverages, and undergraduate students, ultimate search.
1. ALCOHOL: A volatile flammable, colorless liquid containing ethanol. It is the intoxicating ingredient in wine. Includes every other drink (beverage) containing it.
2. CONSUMPTION: take in through the mouth (to drink).
3. INFLUENCE. The power to motivate and compel action.
4. UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT: it includes all students running an academic program that leads to the award of bachelor’s degree.
5. ULTIMATE SEARCH: Also known as Guilder Ultimate Search (GUS) it is a local content television series initiated and funded by the Nigerian Breweries PLC.
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