Music is an integral part of youth culture, since the advent of the music video in 1981, music and music video have gone hand-in-hand and the effects of music videos on youth have been the subject of research and controversy. The purpose of this study was to bring to fore t the influence of hip-hop videos on the dress pattern among Nigerian youths (a case study of O.O.U students)
The study employed a descriptive survey. The instrument used for this study IS a self developed questionnaire,; Using simple random sampling technique, three hundred and ninety two (392) questionnaires were distributed to students of Olabisi Onabanjo Univeristy. The data collected were thus analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage.
The findings of the study revealed that Adopting the hip-hop videos dressing pattern by student on campus makes them look indecent. Also the result indicted that hip-hop videos doesn’t make you proud of African traditional attires. Also hHip-hop videos have a strong influence on students of O.O.U and finally hip-hop videos influences students dress pattern negatively.
The study therefore concluded that the influence of hip-hop videos are therefore not veritable instruments for mobilization and national orientation for desirable attitudes. The study thus recommends; Advertisers need to be censored and stopped from using immoral or indecent images or visuals in their effort to sell their goods or services. Media and film regulatory frameworks must continue to be vigilant in screening contents of home movies so as to ensure the preservation of Nigerian/African cultural values both in the content and costume of these home movies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.1.1 Cultivation Theory
2.1.2 Social Cognitive Theory
2.1.3 Selective Perception
2.1.4 Selection Attention and Retention Theory
2.2 Conceptual Review
2.2.1 Concepts of Hip-Hop
2.2.2 Hip Hop: The Nigerian Experience
2.2.3 Effects of hip-hop Videos
2.2.4 The impact of Hip Hop on society and on subgroup members
2.2.5 Sociological and Health Related Implications of ‘Sagging’ as
2.2.6 Music multilingualism and hip hop consumption
2.3 Empirical review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sampling size
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 38
3.6 Data Collection Procedure
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF
4.0 Introduction 41
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Presentation of Data based on research questions
4.3 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
5.2 Summary of Findings
1.1 Background of the study
Music is an integral part of youth culture, since the advent of the music video in 1981, music and music video have gone hand-in-hand and the effects of music videos on youth have been the subject of research and controversy. The common reason for the concern has been aptly summed by Arnett (2002), who explained:
“A typical music video features one or more men performing while beautiful, scantily clad young women dance and writhe lasciviously. Often the men dance too but the women always have fewer clothes on. The women are mostly just props. They appear for a fraction of a second, long enough to shake their butts a couple of times, then the camera moves on” .
This description is particularly applicable for hip hop music videos and there has been an increasing concern that hip hop culture as seen in music videos has become heavily influencial on young people's view of sexuality (Jones, 1997 cited in Boyd, 2002). The term Hip hop is used both for a musical style and a subcultural movement. Scholar's such as Carl and Virgil Taylor (2005) emphasize that " Hip-hop is not only a genre of music, but also a complex system of ideas, values and concepts that reflect newly emerging and ever-changing creative correlative expressive mechanism including but not limited to song, poetry, film and fashion. " Rap is what you do; hip hop is what you are. Rap is the act, hip hop is the culture (Boyd,2002).
The origins of hip hop can be traced to James Brown and Blowfly, among others. They are often called the godfather of hip hop. Today music is only one part of what makes up this subculture, which maintains a powerful presence in popular culture. Kids and young adults who adhere to it are traditionally exposed to "performer's wearing droopy pants, hats to the back, laceless sneakers, hood and loud radios” (krohn and suazo, 1995). So, as Rose (1994) points out, "Hip-hop is a youth culture which comprises of graffiti, break dancing, and rap music" (Rose,1994). Ibrahim (2003) believes that Hip-hop and rap create a social identity among youth, in particular, black youth through fashion choices, dialect and an extensive slang lexicon,as well as their behaviours and ideas.
The influence of hip hop videos on youths are widespread. The influence is mainly on their dressing and their attires, that is what they wear and what they use to adorn themselves". In recent times, it has been observed that a change is occurring in the mode of dressing and clothing style of the younger population. They dress weirdly and embarrassingly. The female younger population mostly dresses half nude; they prefer to wear trousers and skimpy shirts or T-shirt that reveals their tummy, body hug which shows all the contours in their body frames or mini skirt with a see-through tops while the boys although still wear shirt and trousers but which are always in various bigger sizes compared to their nominal sizes.
Apuke (2016) further submits that the way students on campuses of learning dress leave many to wonder where they get these dresses from. They tend to copy different hip-hop videos actors/actresses costumes projected on the screen which are mostly contrary to our traditional norms and values.
The concern on media influence has led to the development of different communication theories. This is an attempt to explain the relationship between communication messages and their influence on the respondent. Culturally, this media influence could be in the area of language, behavioural response, pattern of eating and dressing.
Since it has been established that music is a mass media, it is proposed in this study that hip-hop videos have influence on the dress pattern among Nigeria youth. This supposition is hinged on the fact that hip-hop videos have gained wide followership among students, especially the youths.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Hip-hop videos are seen as source of entertainment and education, as well as conduit for promoting Nigerian culture. In the face of media imperialism by foreign media and the overshadowing of Nigerian’s cultural values, it becomes important to examine hip-hop videos to ascertain if it is influencing the dress pattern among youths.
An examination of some of the hip-hop videos will reveal that they portray nudity while some portray costumes that reflect the rich Nigerian culture. In the face of this challenges, it becomes necessary to examine how hip-hop videos influence the dressing pattern among Nigerian youths.
1.3 objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of hip-hop video on youth dressing pattern using Olabisi Onabanjo University students as a case study. Its objectives include:
1. To find out the preference of Nigerian youths for hip-hop video
2. To find out whether dressing pattern in hip-hop video gain public admiration by Nigerian Youths.
3. To find out whether Nigerian youth practice the dress pattern showcase in hip-hop video.
4. To find out the extent at which hip-hop video influence dressing pattern of Nigerian youths.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Do Nigerian youths have preference for hip-hop videos?
2. Do dressing pattern showcase in hip-hop video gain public admiration by Nigerian youths?
3. Do Nigerian youths practice the dressing pattern showcase in hip-hop video?
4. To what extent do hip-hop video influence dressing pattern of Nigerian youths?
1.5 significance of the study
This study is relevant for the following reasons:
It will determine the type of influence that hip-hop videos have on the dressing pattern of students in Olabisi Onabanjo university and this guide policymakers and regulatory agencies in providing protection against the production and exposure to videos that negate Nigerians cultural values.
Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and mass media students because it will expose them to the theory on the influences that could be exerted via the media.
1.6 scope of the study
The scope of this study encompasses the influence of hip-hop video on Nigerian Youths. The study covers undergraduates students of Olabisi Onabanjo university selected from five faculties in main campus of the institutions. The five faculties are; (a). Faculty of Arts, (b). Faculty of Social and Management Sciences,
(c). Faculty of Education, (d). Faculty of Law and (e). Faculty of Science
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This study is limited by time factor and finance. The time period given for completion is short while finance is needed to carry out an intensive research of this nature
1.8 Definition of Terms
Hip-hop: A culture that was born of the south Bronx, an Afro-American urban youth culture based on rap music, breakdancing etc.
Dress Pattern: this is refers to the choice or type of dressing or clothing preferred by a certain group of people.
Nigerian Youth: It refers to an age group or the transitional period in which children are moving out of the dependence of childhood and into the responsibility of adulthood.
Influence: this is the impact something or someone has on something or someone. This could be positive or negative. The power to affect, control or manipulate something or someone.
The study will be undertaken Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, the research designs under this methodology will be survey design. According to Asika (1991) research design is the structuring of investigation aimed at identifying variables and the relationship to one another. This is used for the purpose of obtaining data to enable the researcher to answer the research question.
Instrument for data collection
Primary data and secondary data will be collected for this study. The primary data will be collected with the use of a self-administered questionnaire while the secondary data will be collected from journals, online materials etc.
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