1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to (Fabunmi, 2010), the modern society or the entire world has grown to a level that the use of computers in the chain of production is inevitable. The genesis of automation in the banking industry in Nigeria can be linked to the on-going struggle by individual banks for survival and growth. Automation means the use of automatic equipment in place of manual labour; Automation is also the use of machine for four D’s task where the four D’s stands for Dangerous, Difficult, Dirty, and Dull. In Nigeria, Automatic Teller Machine technology is becoming more common than it ever was. ATMs appear to be mainly provided by banks in Nigeria (Fasan, 2007). Yet, their widespread adoption by customers of banks is not clear, as it appears that peoples’ perception of the technology is diverse, which in turn affects their decision to actually use ATMs or not. ATMs are set up to provide 24 hour services to bank customers, who cannot expect to be able to transact with Adoption of Automatic Teller Machines in Nigeria banks in the same period of time (Ugwu, 2008). Nevertheless, it is observed that banks still have many customers transacting with tellers within their doors, and queues are still not a thing of the past inside banks. The patronage of ATMs is also not well defined, and even epileptic at best, as sometimes long queues were observed outside ATMs, while at other times, there are few or no customers. It is consequently, important to discover why this is so, because as a technology, ATMs are supposed to make life easier and more efficient for the customers of banks. Concerning banks, ATMs ought to assist in improving a banks’ turnover, therefore low patronage of
ATMs by their customers could affect the banks’ profit adversely. Therefore, there is a need to study the constructs that could affect the adoption of Automatic Teller Machines. Using a popular and widely used theory such as the theory of diffusion of innovation, it is expected from this study that the extent of diffusion of ATM will be determinable with a view to knowing what could be done to prevent the inhibition surrounding its use. Thus, it could be reasoned that the benefits of ATM can only accrue to adopters in Nigeria when barriers to their diffusion and adoption are identified. The DOI theory was used in an attempt to model the use of ATM in Nigeria, so that the progression of its use could be anticipated and fully catered for by banks. Although the application of the theory had been tested in previous studies there is a need for it to be applied locally using a recently introduced technology, such as ATM in Nigeria. The use of the theory is vital as there is a requirement for more information that could add to existing research. Furthermore, there appears to be a dearth of information concerning diffusion studies on ATM in Nigeria using the DOI model. Accordingly, this could reveal areas that require further research, and provide answers to hitherto obscure questions concerning ATM adoption and diffusion.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Which came first the chicken or the egg?’ A similar question can be posed about the influence of technology and the changes taking in the alternatives suggested are probably not as clear-cut as that. In the banking industry. “Are these changes being driven by technology?”
Or is the propensity for change derived from market forces? We may never know the answer, even if there is one, for the alternatives suggested are probably not as clear-cut as that it maybe for example, the changes in the market forces are inextricable entwined what is important is that technology should be able to keep abreast of the market requirements and,
where possible technological development taking place now can anticipate future market needs.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of this project is directed towards the achievement of the following:
To improve quality of service.
To improve sales effectiveness and revenue.
To reduce operational cost.
To improve management information and help in decision making
To enhance customer satisfaction at a profit.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
H0: The relative advantage of using Automatic Teller Machines does not positively affect the attitude towards using the technology.
H0: The complexity of the use of Automatic Teller Machines does not positively affect the attitude towards using the technology.
H0: The compatibility of Automatic Teller Machines with the adopter’s values does not positively affect the attitude towards using the technology.
H0: The trialability of Automatic Teller Machines does not positively affect the attitude toward using the technology.
H0: The observability of Automatic Teller Machines does not positively affect the attitude towards using the technology.
H0: The attitude towards Automatic Teller Machines does not positively affect the intention to use the technology.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Some of the activities need to be done so as to get the true picture and broad knowledge of automation of the textile industry in Nigeria; the following methods of data collection were employed:
Interviews and observations with potential users of the system and specialist in the fields related to the system.
Study of various textbooks and other services such as journal, articles and several publications on automated Teller Machine.
To surf the internet for information and articles on automated Teller Machine.
The Research Model
The research model adopted in this study depicts what should occur given the constructs that have been put forward by Rogers (1995) concerning the adoption of a technology. These constructs ought to affect the intention to use a particular innovation which in this case is ATM. Thus, the model indicates that the five constructs: relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability and observability of using ATM would affect the attitude of the adopter which in turn will affect Olatokun & Igbinedion the intention of the adopter to use an ATM. Thus, all the constructs are collectively likely to have an effect on the adopter’s attitude towards ATM which would invariably affect the adopter’s intention to use it. Intention to use an ATM has direct bearing on whether the machine is actually used or not.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This study tested the attributes of the theory of diffusion of innovation empirically, using Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) as the target innovation. The study was situated in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The population comprised banks customers in Ilorin who used ATMs. The sampling frame technique was applied, and 14 banks that had deployed ATMs were selected. Cluster sampling was employed to select respondents for the study. Data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire administered to 600 respondents of which 428 were returned giving 71.3% return rate. Principal Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression were the analytical techniques used. The demographic characteristics of the respondents revealed that most of them were students and youths. From the factor analysis, it was revealed that the respondents believed in their safety in using ATM; that ATMs were quite easy to use and fit in with their way of life; that what they observed about ATMs convinced them to use it and that ATM was tried out before they use it. The constructs Relative Advantage, Complexity, Compatibility, and Trialability were all found to have a significant impact on the Attitude towards ATM, which in turn had a significant impact on the Intention to use it. Relative Advantage and Compatibility had almost the same weight of impact on Attitude; while Observability had the highest impact on attitude. To increase the diffusion of ATMs, it was recommended that banks should ensure enhanced salience of ATM to customers’ needs, greater compatibility of ATM to customers banking norms and lifestyle, less complex and easy to use system and opportunity for adopters to experiment with the system before using ATMs.
1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In Nigeria, a mechanical cash dispenser, arguably an ATM was introduced in 1986 by the defunct Societe Generale Bank. In October 2003 InterSwitch ATM system took off.
ATM services have a history that is less than ten years in Nigeria. At first, they were operated as elitist services designed for those desirous of exclusive service. Cards were rare and the process for obtaining them tortuous. Presently, the use of ATM cards has been widely promoted. Banks no longer appear to want personal contact with their customers. Some banks have resorted to penalizing the customer as it were, for not possessing an ATM card, by debiting the account of such a customer for withdrawing below a certain amount across the counter. Agboola (2006) reported that although only a bank had an ATM in 1998, by 2004, fourteen of them had acquired the technology. Agboola (2006) discovered that the adoption of ICT in banks has produced largely positive outcomes such as improved customer services, more accurate records, ensuring convenience in business time, prompt and fair attention, and faster services etc. Also, the banks’ image is improved creating a more competent market.
Work has also been made easier, and more interesting, the competitive edge of banks, relationship with customers, and the solution of basic operational and planning problems has been improved. Fanawopo (2006) stated that Nigeria’s debit card transactions rose by 93 percent between January 2005 and March 2006 over previous years owing to aggressive roll out initiatives by Nigerian banks, powered by Interswitch network. The number of ATM transactions through the Interswitch network had increased from, 1,065,972 in 2004, to 14, 448, 615 between January 2005 to March 2006. This is a rise of 92.6 percent with respect to the previous years. More than 800 ATMs have been deployed on the network, while about 2 million cards have been issued by 23 banks as at March 2006.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The work in this project is divided into five chapters namely:
Chapter one gives the introduction. It will contain a brief overview of the subject matter i.e. Automation in banking industry in Nigeria; Background of the study, Statement of the problem, Aims and objectives of the study, Statement of Hypothesis, Research Methodology, Scope of the Project, Organization of the Study.
Chapter two gives the literature review. This includes the brief history of the automation in the banking industry in Nigeria, and definition of terms used in the analysis of the Diffusion of Innovation theorem which includes relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability and Observerbility .
Chapter three deals with the methodology and system analysis.
Chapter four focuses on implementation of automation in the textile industry.
Chapter five gives the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
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