Project Topic:

PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION ON URBAN-RURAL NEWS IMBALANCE IN NIGERIANS NEWSPAPER; THE ROLE OF REPORTERS

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 63 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   1,284 people found this useful

Project Department:

BROADCASTING UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY    

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS     

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     VITAL AND IMPORTANT ROLES MASS MEDIA CAN PLAY IN RURAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN NIGERIA

2.2     PROBLEMS OF RURAL REPORTING IN NIGERIA

2.3     NEWSPAPER AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

2.4     RURAL-URBAN INFORMATION FLOW AND RURAL REPORTING

2.5     RURAL-URBAN INFORMATION FLOW AND RURAL JOURNALIST

2.6     RURAL INFORMATION FLOW AND NATIONAL IMAGE

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     INTRODUCTION

3.2     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.3     STUDY POPULATION

3.4     SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION

3.5.1  INSTRUMENTATION

3.5.2  VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT

3.6     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1     INTRODUCTION

4.2     DATA ANALYSIS (QUESTIONNAIRE)

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY    

Looking at information flow pattern between urban and rural areas vis-à-vis development in Nigeria, it has become pertinent to look within and be more conscious of internal information flow chart before taking the agitation to international level. The fact remains that the internal information structure is weak; therefore, the struggle for balance in information circle should start at home. National development can only be achieved in a society, where there is both quantitative and qualitative information, which are available and accessible to the majority of people.

Despite their vaunted objectivity and self-acclaimed commitment to fairness, it can be argued that the Nigerian mass media has over the years, solely neglected the rural areas. The perspective of the Nigeria mass media was, and continues to be (despite some progress), strictly urban. The media reports and writes from the standpoint of an urban dweller’s world. The ills of the rural areas, difficulties of life there, their burning sense of grievance, are seldom seriously conveyed. Indeed, over ninety-five percent (95%) of the Nigerian mass media, particularly the print media, can be referred to as the urban press-après that repeatedly if unconsciously, reflects the bias, the paternalism and the indifference of the typical urban dweller.

This bias manifests itself in one or two forms: neglect of the majority and distortion of news about the rural populace. While the former refers to neglect of rural efforts, aspirations and overall existence, the latter refers to a situation whereby the issues, events or efforts of our rural areas, whenever reported, are inaccurately and sometimes carelessly reported in the media. In most cases, this inaccuracy or distortion stems from the typical Nigerian journalist’s misguided belief that since majority of our rural populace are illiterate, all of them cannot understand whatever was being said.

 In Nigeria, a multiplicity of media houses can be found, largely due to the diversity of the population of the country. Media houses are seen to cluster in and around cities and towns. The importance of the media in disseminating information for development cannot be over emphasized. Rivers and Schramm (1969: p.2) comment on the ubiquitous nature of the mass media. In other words, “We have become aware of the importance of mass communication. Nearly everyone is convinced that the mass media, good or bad are central to modern society. Most of us depend upon mass communication products for a large majority of all the information and entertainment we receive during life.” Annan (1997: p. 22) avers saying, “If information and knowledge are central to democracy, they are the conditions of development. Knowledge and information are essential for people to successfully respond to the opportunities and challenges of social, economic and technological changes. But to be useful, knowledge and information must be effectively communicated to people (World Bank, 2004: P. 5). Amodu (2007) cited in Anaeto (2010: p. 4) in examining development, says that it is the process of positive socio-economic change in the quality and level of human existence which is aimed at raising the standard of living, the quality of life and human dignity.

This study focuses on People’s perception the role of reporters on the Urban-rural news imbalance in Nigerians newspaper, using The Guardian newspaper as a case study.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Talking about neglect of the rural areas by the Nigeria mass media, the temptation is to pass off such neglect as a result of prejudice, on the part of reporters and editors -- unconscious, unintended prejudice nonetheless. To a certain extent, such an argument is valid. However, a more important reason for the neglect stems from the structure of Nigeria journalism -- from the way the mass media has explicitly or implicitly defined who they are and what journalism in Nigeria is all about.

Arguably, most media houses in the country today believe that since they are situated in the urban areas, their primary task is to satisfy their urban colleagues, who, after all, are mostly those who attend to the media and, of course advertise in the papers and magazines or buy up available air time to slot in their commercials. Perhaps they are right to adopt this stance of concentrating on the urban areas, even if the journalists are ‘socialists’ at heart.

Journalism in Nigeria has for long been under the control of urban minds and it can be maintained that most of our newsrooms have not yet had reporters who can, and are willing to, bring the perspectives, values and moves needed to broaden coverage.  Structurally, then, the Nigeria mass media has, largely been without the adequate firsthand knowledge needed to help them improve coverage of the rural area. Most of the reporters live in the cities and are more likely to notice things that are happening within their vicinity rather than the problems, issues and developmental efforts of our rural populace. Thus, a conflict over the quality of secondary school education in a remote rural location.

The other reason for the neglect of the rural populace by the media over the years is as the first, but it is no less significant. Nigeria journalists, unfortunately, define news in such a way that the rural dwellers are almost automatically excluded. Unless they happen to be involved in communal clashes, or are protesting against the confiscation of their farmlands by the government without adequate compensation; this structural definition limits coverage to that which entails a sort of conflict or unusualness. These problems make it obvious that there is a need to carry out a study on People’s perception the role of reporters on the Urban-rural news imbalance in Nigerians newspaper.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

The general objective of this study is to examine People’s perception the role of reporters on the Urban-rural news imbalance in Nigerians newspaper. The specific objectives are:

1.     To ascertain if there is an imbalance in urban and rural news on The Guardian newspaper.

2.     To find out if urban news are given more preference to rural news on The Guardian newspaper.

3.     To examine if daily times newspaper cover negatively rural areas than they do for urban areas.

4.     To determine if reporters play a role in urban-rural news imbalance on The Guardian newspaper.

5.     To investigate if urban-rural news imbalance influence people’s choice for The Guardian newspaper.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The relevant research questions related to this study include the following:

1.     Is there an imbalance in urban and rural news on The Guardian newspaper?

2.     Are urban news given more preference to rural news on The Guardian newspaper?

3.     Does daily times newspaper cover negatively rural areas than they do for urban areas?

4.     Do reporters play a role in urban-rural news imbalance in The Guardian newspaper?

5.     Does urban-rural news imbalance influence people’s choices for The Guardian newspaper?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings from this study is relevant to the management of Newspapers because the study addresses the implication of u

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