1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media is a vigorous instrument for modification and reconstruction still as the reformation, thus while not info no society will perform effectively. African country as a developing nation desires a well structured and effective media to reshape and reconstruct its ideologies, living patterns, and perception of events around us and act as checks and balances on the activities of the upper crust. Therefore, to realize this, there's each got to reconstitute the media therefore on improve its performance. The media could be an important instrument in social reforms and within the reconstruction of ideas and perceptions of events within the society. It’s also considered the life-wire of the society that within the political sphere, the media appear like a really vital tool to democratic government and curse autocratic despots anyplace within the world. The media thus represent the channel through that information; ideal and news are disseminated to the final public. These channels embody the newspaper, magazine, television, radio, posters, periodical, etc. The media as a channel of mass communications could be a well-organized system of assembling and causation out info to the final public, this is often most typical with the broadcasting (television), wherever its entire perform is centred on the transmission of stories, ideas, and services. Television as channels of communication play a tremendous role in reforming, educating, enlightening, and abusive still as setting agenda for the individuals, with a severe limitation to the literate category of the society. Most activities and life-styles on exhibits these days are formed and intentional by the mass media, through its diver’s functions, a number of that are to tell, educate, entertain, Lasswell (2010) and Advert Wright (2012). Thought in playing these functions many factors affect its effectiveness. These factors might arise from distractions within the channels to the lack of the sender to effectively communicate to the supposed listeners to established contact still as paying serious attention to the message being disseminated. Indeed, it's usually accepted that folks sleep in a contemporary world of communication wherever one cannot exist while not sharing ideas and knowledge for the advantage of the society, be it ancient motion or trendy. The present trends of social and political awareness throughout the world and particularly in Nigeria; the television has become an important instrument to transfer the weather for reconstruction. For an example, throughout the struggle for Nigeria’s independence, the mass media particularly, that of radio was the organ through that the nationalist dreams and aspirations were actualized. This is often apparent to the actual fact that African countries didn't reach independence through the barrels of the gun compared to most African countries viz. Angola, Mozambique, Algerie, etc. Again, throughout the third republic, the broadcasting media (radio) coated and rumoured elaborate info relating to the political standing of the country. It strived and effectively formed the angle and perception of African countries toward the difficulty at stake. Although in African country most of the sturdy broadcasting media are closely-held and controlled by the government with the management of most media by the government as an example, the radio, television, ministry of data, news organization of African country, the voice of African country. The government may at any purpose in time shut down any media firm that proves stubborn, thereby disallowing the free expression of ideas and knowledge. There are some personal corporations closely-held and operated by people seeking favor from the government., thus introduced what's known as self-censorship, clogging freedom of expression as discovered by one of the workers of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), Abuja that “freedom of speech is not any doubt the terrible foundation of each democratic society. For while not free discussion, notably political problems, on public education or enlightenment that is essential for the right functioning and execution of the processes of accountable government cannot be possible”. With some live of management within the media by the government, the aim of achieving objective coverage as a base of each democratic society is defeated, in most government closely-held and controlled media in our society. It’s also noticed that there's nearly poor performance in their general services in relevancy news coverage, editorial policy, etc. Infact, it's quite true that in recent times, government-owned media have oversubscribed out their place to the in-camera closely-held media as a result of what find yourself within the government media areadditional or fewer items or info presenting entirely solely government views, wherever because the ills of that very same government are expurgated go into the report. Most listeners, therefore, need to urge the reality and wherever such doesn't exist within the government media; they communicate the personal media that appear to be fairly unbiased. Governments (especially in Africa) use the published media to publicize info to the grouping, soliciting support from the people for his or her programs and mobilizing individuals to perform sure duties expected of them and to support from the people for his or her programs and mobilizing individuals to perform sure duties expected of them and support their policies [Ibrahim, Audusonet al., 1998; Tan and Alexis et al, 2010]. Television broadcasting in African countries emerged as a product of democratic effort and was meant to foster the democratization method in the African country. This analysis examines the challenges of state closely-held broadcast media in Nigeria’s democratic rule. Therefore, an in-depth study to review this current trend in government closely-held media by the approach of distinctive those factors militating against its effective performance concerns this analysis study. As a result, the assorted issues encounter by the media, particularly that closely-held by the government why they appear to be playing below normal within the gift circumstance. This is why this research work is being undertaken. Also the alarming rate at that government closely-held media are depreciatory and changing into ineffective in their skilled obligations has so created concern within the minds of communication practitioners, students of mass communication and therefore the society.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The media is a dynamic instrument for change and reconstruction as well as reformation hence without information no society can function effectively. Nigeria being a developing nation needs a well-structured and effective media to reshape and reconstruct its ideologies, living patterns and perception of events around us and act as checks and balances on the activities of the ruling class. To achieve the above, therefore there is every need to restructure the media so as to improve its performance. The inability of the government –owned media, like Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) to function effectively, its effect on the quality of service delivery, news coverage, staff welfare, and organizational setup, needs to be investigated. This study, therefore, will attempt to identify those problems that are common in government-owned media. It will look into how subjective reporting of events and how self censorship policy affects quality of service delivery. This raise the questions of whether the employment of unqualified and in experienced staffs, lack of adequate equipment and poor maintenance due to lack of funds, could be responsible for the serious problems experienced by this media houses. This study, therefore will attempt to establish the impact of these problem on performance of the government owned media houses.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the challenges of government owned broadcast media in a democratic rule. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no impact of these problems on performance of the government owned media houses.
H1: There is a significant impact of these problems on performance of the government owned media houses.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help us determine the factors which constitute problems to government owned media houses and also to know the extent with which the problems have reached and the study will also suggest solutions to the problems. As a result of the fact that the organization might not have time and also the resources both manpower and other wise to research into this topic, this very work would therefore, present a comprehensive and factual information or knowledge of their operations in the state. By acknowledging the facts put up more efforts to improve or automatically correcting the problems existing in the government owned media houses. On the other hand, as a station owned and finance by the government, knowledge of the station’s problems is a step towards solving it. The public in general will benefit from the findings of this research and the solutions if implemented by the management of government television station, their conditions and level of service will improve and the public will have cause to enjoy and identify with the station the more especially students of mass communication will always find this work valuable as it serve as a reference materials for them.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on challenges of government owned broadcast media in a democratic rule, a case study of NTA, Abuja.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Broadcast: An act transmitting sounds or images by a radio or television in form of programs and some information.
Government media: These are all channels of mass communication owned and controlled by the government. For this study, government media is taken as the Nigerian Television Authority known as NTA, Abuja.
Technological problems: Those difficulties arising as a result of lack of technological facilities and skills.
Political Problems or interference: Difficulties arising as a result of government decision, policies and political interference in the operation and management of the Broadcasting station.
Broadcast Media: It refers to transmission of electromagnetic audio signals (radio) or audio-visual signals (Television) that are accessible to a wide population via standard readily available receivers (Ogunmilade, 1998).
Challenges: It means the hindrances or constraints which makes the media not to execute their duties effectively and efficiently.
Media: In this research study, the media simply means the medium or channel via messages or information are passed from one source to the heterogeneous audience e.g. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Abuja.
OTHER SIMILAR BROADCASTING PROJECTS AND MATERIALS