BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media as has been established, can provide for audience members a definition of the situation on a variety of issues, by emphasizing certain topics, stressing particular interpretations, and project specific themes.
Simply by their presence, the media have altered the nature of societal communication norms. Large audience have been created that exjpect the media to provide continues flow of news, entertainment, political commentary, and other types of message. People depend on the media for various forms of gratification based on content. If denied such communication, they feel deprived (berelson 1950:889-898) even in relatively under developed societies, population quickly develop media related habits, once mass communication become available to them in a form they understand.
The potential effect of media in shaping attitudes and behaviour has been the subject of consideration debate. This is so because media influence is modified by many factors or intervention variables. Research also showed us that the images and words these media carry, determine within limitations posed by intervening factors, opinions of peoples and thus their action Woodrow Wilson (1985) saw this too. He said “unless you get the right impression, things go wrong”.
It is believed that in the imperfect world, thee is no signal antidote to social malaise but publicity is often a vital step to finding the cure of such anomaly. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive coverage and true information on the gains of family planning will reach and perhaps affect people’s attitude and belief about family planning.
Family planning as a concept of world social order is as old as man itself. It has been practiced in several reasons. It could be said to be a means of population control other than by disease, war or other natural and man made disasters.
The term “family planning” was only applied to this ageless phenonmenon when the social effects abaqndoned babies, material mortality due especially to illegal abortion and problems of over sized poor families began to seriously bother the minds of sociologist and health workers.
Family planning has received media coverage around the world since inceptions in 1916. Initially, the reaction of people was nothing but antagonistic.
This was perhaps due to misconception and ignorance of the aims and values of family, but as the issues develop it clears the people’s eyes and their perception more enlightened.
Internationally, the world body, the United Nations (UN) through its agency, the world health organization (WHO) has championed the p0ublicity and propaganda campaign for the introduction and acceptance of the modern agitations and clamoring against it.
Among which are the social health, religious and education factors influencing the development, modification and some times out right discontinuation of some aspect to the family planning amplified the media coverage of family, and manifested the importance of population in planning for world demographic economic distribution.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEAARCH PROBLEM
Although it is a truism that the term “family planning is not unknown to most Nigerians, there is still need to clearly define the concept.
1 Family planning is not just for stopping child bearing.
2 Evidence shows that family planning is understood as limiting child.
3 They believe that it is sinful to interfere with injunction to go ahead and procreate.
4 To determine the effects of exposure to family planning campaign on parents.
5 Proper identification on a problem determines the direction of the study.
6 Knowing that Nigerian’s population growth rate is at the alarming rate of 3.4 percent per annum.
7 The government evidently considers family planning indispensable factors.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of the study is to examine the extent to which media coverage of the family planning campaign has affected.
1 To know the ability of family planning message carried by the media.
2 To induce the parents to change their behavior to family size.
3 To help them also know more about family planning and suggest way of it’s practice.
4 The study is interested in the audience that is parents.
5 Are they really getting information (exposure) has thieer level of education.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is envisaged that the outcome of the study will alert the parents population on dangers inherent in large. Family sizes and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of media effects.
Also the study will help the health ministry to determine which media to employ in dissemination family planning information. Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with a more concrete and more futuristic approach to covering all manners of campaigns without much ado in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Has mass media campaigns on family planning been carried effective by the mass media in Enugu urban area?
2. Do the parents in Enugu urban area understand what family planning is?
3. Have parents in Enugu urban adopted family planning method?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Mass media campaign on the family planning has not been effectively used to educate people.
H2: Parents in Enugu urban area had understand what family planning is.
H0: Parents in Enugu urban area had not understood what family planning is.
H3: Parents in Enugu urban had adopted family planning method.
H0: Parents in Enugu urban area had not adopted family planning method.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
There are terms in this study which are of interest and therefore need to be defined for better appraisal of the study, both conceptual definitions are given.
Mass media: In this context means various communication channels (specifically radio, television, newspaper) through which information regarding family planning campaign is communicated to families of Enugu urban areas.
MEDIA COVERAGE: The reportage of family planning message through the radio, television newspaper.
FAMILY PLANNING CAMPAIGN: These adopt through radio, television and newspapers aimed at changing the parent attitude, beliefs and predispositions about family planning.
RESIDENT: Family planning living in Enugu urban area both indigene and non indigene alike.
MASS MEDIA: Means of communicating information to heterogonous audience.
MASS COVERAGE: The range of news dealt with by the media.
FAMILY PLANNING CAMPAIGN: Series of planned information to publicize family planning and it follow-ups.
RESIDENT: persons who live in a place (contrasted with visitors e.t.c)
It is assumed that the researcher to a great extent are working towards the direction of tracing the problem associated with the research, it will also be noted that before the end of the research work, solutions will be preferred to the aspect of family planning method.
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