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1.1    Background of the Study

The media has been established to provide for their audience, information on varieties of issues.  By emphasizing certain topic stressing particular interpretation and projects specific themes the media creates some distorted impression with their “ definition” portraying  reflection of the real society ie if sexual promiscuity is  regularly portrayed as widely practices and accepted in this sense, the viewers  may accept such definition as normative in the society  because of media definition when somebody defines his/ her own over behavior in such a situation norms  internalized from media sources may guide his  conduct.

Simple   by  their   presence,  the  mass   media   have  altered  the  nature   of  social  communication   norm  large  audience   have  been  created  that   expect  the  media  to  provide  political   commentary  and  other  message.  People   depend on the   media for various forms  of  gratification  based  upon  contend.  If denied such communication, they feel deprived.

Benelson, (2000).  Even in relatively underdeveloped   societies, population   quickly develops. Societies habit   once mass communication become available to them   in the way they understand.  People become   aware of events outside their   immediate experience.

People  according  to  Walter lippman (2003)  act  upon  basis  of  the  pictures  in  our  head  rather  than  the  reality  of  the   world   outside.

We have learned  through  research that  the  images  and  words  the   media  carry,  television, radio  and  newspapers  determines  within  the   limitation  posed  by  intervening  factors,  open  by  people  and  their  actions.

It is  believed  that  in the  imperfect   world,  there   is  no  single  antidote  to  human  ills  but  public state is   often   a vital  step  finding  that  cure  for   many  social ills. In  this  line  therefore,  it  is  believed   that  extensive  impact  of  media  and  true  information on  the  AIDS   campaign  will  be read  and   perhaps  touch  on  the  sexual  habit  of  people.  When  a  disease  is  sexual  transmitted,  the  publicity effort  to  eradicate it  is  fortified.  AIDS  is  the  worst   disease  to  hit  human  race  since  the  black  plague  of  the  114th  century.   Already, 25  million  unsuspected  people  have  caught  this  disease  and  do not  know it,  and  might  not  know  it  for  years. (Van Impe: 1989: 1)

Historical Aspect of AIDS

The devastating disease “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) came into word limelight in 1981 when Dr. Michael Goltiels of the University of Califonia noted an unusual disease paemocystics Cabini Pnemnia, in four patients that were homosexual and all below 40 years age (Njoku Obi 1989).

It is not yet known where AIDS actually started. It was a disgrace to the scientific community that the emergence of AIDS brought with a lot of buck passing as regards to the origin of the disease.

The World Health Organization (WHO) explained it to be a virus of undermined geographic origin”.  The first case of AIDS were identified in the US and was first recognized in Uganda in 1982.  The virus disease AIDS is a relatively new arrived in Nigeria at least compared to many other countries.  According to WHO Global 1988 AIDS / incidence inventory, the number of reported case of AIDS was in Nigeria than other countries of the world.

The African concord magazine who have developed full below AIDS in Nigeria as approximately 8,000 men and women, many of would have died . in the same issue, Dr. Olukove Ransome  Kiti, then the minister of health, is quote as saying.  Even if we are able to prevent further transmission of the virus, we will expect about 69,000 adult and 39,000 pediatric AIDS case between 1991 and 1999.  The rate of spread varies from country to country.

AIDS case firstly was reports in 1984 in Niarobi, Kenya.  Apparently, AIDS came from monkeys in Africa. It was a species barriers from animal to humans.  This virus has grave on human beings rather than in the moneys that have it.Medical experts believe that the green monkeys of African passed their centivinis to human through bitig and beatiality.  Shocking have committed such acts with animals (Vanlmpe 1987:29).

Next infected men engaged other men in sexual acts, and the virus spread like wide fire and no homosexuals international.  Scores of such men even of their homes and filled their wives with he viruses.

Risk: A single exposure is suficial for a person to contact Aids.

Prognosis: Current statistic suggests that if a person becomes HIV positive there is a 60 percent chance of developing AIDS within 7years.

Distribution: AIDS is a world wide disease so terrifying and devastating.  AIDS is seen equally in both men and women especially the prostitutes and their customers.

The spread is mainly heterosexual profit Njioku Obi (1989) noted Zaire, Bunindi, Pwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi as the African AIDS Belt”.  However, Newyork, Los Angels and Sanfranciso have called the AIDS centers of the Western World.

Actilogy: AIDS is caused by a retrovirus, Retrovirus like other virus reproduce only in living cells of a host species.

Mode of Transmission

HIV has been isolated from Blood, Semen, Vaginal secretion and other body fluid including tears.  However, transmission is through sexual relationship, blood transfusion and use of stinger incubation period.

Incubation Period

It takes on the average an interval of 29 months, 12months between exposure to the virus and manifestation of AIDS in adult and children respectively.

Scope of the Disease

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a sexually transmitted years has spread through the present lack of vaccine for prophylaxis, or drugs for one.

The AIDS virus infects cells in the brain and causes what is known as dementia, or brain disease.

People who have this suffer from impaired short term memory, mental confusion, personality, they may succumb to paranoia, some times psychoses, mutism (they become unable to speak) in continence they have loss of muscular contra and finally coma and death (Van Impe, 1987).

The World health organization (WHO) has taken the bull by the horn.  It is in the media of world wide they attempt to control of the disease.  AIDS which for appeared to be a disease affecting mainly the homosexually population has become a scourage affecting people of every race and life styles.

Global Situation

International new releases from countries of the world reported that; aids is spreading like wide fire, countries like Austrialia, America and Switzerland reports the severity of the disease. Millions dies from AIDS.  There have been other plagues throughout history millions died because of Spanish influenza, bulbonic plague, and yellow fever, small pox, polio, multiple scterosis and cancer.  However, sensible way of stopping the spread of AIDS is through dissemination of information and deliberate education, combined with personal changing life style, there has been public health measures take.

1The Nigeria situation

Up to the end of 2003, over 20million of Nigeria have proved positive for AIDS. The truth is that the disease is spreading fast. It is worthy to note that with the above figure.  That about 150 people get infected per week in Nigeria. More than 15 million or 80percent are female while the remaining 20 percent are male.  Beside, 15percent out of the 80percent are female children under the age of ten, while 8 out of the 20percent are male children under the age of ten years also.

Researcher prove that adult infected AIDS victims fall within the age range of 18-45 years which is the prime age of like.

1.2    Statement of the Research Problems

The  role  of mass media in a society cannot be over emphasized.  It gives beyond the ordinary art and science of new gathering  and  dissemination to shaping  opinions and  attitude of people  accurate analysis and interpretation of news event through their information education entertaining   and socializing function the mass media affect people attitude and behavior (Graham mitten 1983 32).  The  mass  media  set   agenda for  public  discussion by chronicling   news  event  within   the  society.  The mass  media,  no  doubt,  has   changed  or   altered  our   culture.  New  products, advertised    to  millions  via  television ,  magazines, radio  and   newspapers,   can  achieve  wife  spread  adoption  almost  overnight. The   rapid  spread  of  other  cultural   forms,  such   as  speech  mannerism,  fades  ,of  all  kinds,  and  other   innovative  preteens,  can  be  trigged  by  the  media.

Different   mass media are effective at different points in different ways. The  mass  mess  only   crate   awareness  while  the   face  to  face  communication  bring  about  change.  Both   are   complementary.  But   eagle  and  others   observed  that    when  the   audience  is   large,  it   usually  necessary  to  accept  the  inefficiencies  of  mass  communication   (Eagle,  1970:29).

This  implies   that  the  mass  have  shortcoming   which   to  not   produce  their  effectiveness   no  matter  how   minimal at  bringing   about  social   change.  Lazars   field  and   Katz  radio,   television   and   print   to  opinion  leaders  and  from  them  to  the  less   active  sections  of  the  population,   it  therefore  mass  that   those  who  cannot  be   reached  by  the  three  media   could   benefit  from  interpersonal  flow   of  information  or  the  innovation  (field  and   katz  1955).

Macgurrie  (1969),  observed  that   the  measured  impact  of  the   mass  media    as  regard  persuasiveness   seems  quite   slight.  A   tremendous   among  of   applied  research  has  carried  out  to  test  the   effectiveness  of  the  news   media   messages.   The  out   come   which  he  said   been  guide  embarrassing  for  ,proponents  of  mass  media.

In  view  of  thus  perceived  short  coming,  it  therefore,  becomes  very  necessary  to  take  a  hoard   work  at  the  role  of  the   mass  media  campaign  against  AIDS  vis  - a  Vis  their  impact  among  the   teenagers  in  Enugu  state.  However,  research  is   a  systematic search  of   knowledge  the  media  of  wich  a  primary  to  find solution to existing  problem  determines the direction of the study.  Therefore the problem this work aims at solving are

a.           To determine the major sources of information regarding to AIDS.

b.           To impact exposure to HIV/AIDS campaign on the sexual behavior of the people in Enugu metropolis.

1.3       Objective of the Study

The  primary  aim   of  thus  study  is  to  examine  the  extent  to  which  mass  media  campaign  against  AIDS  has   affected  and  influenced  attitude  and  behavioral  change  towards   sex.  Influence  here ,  will  therefore,  be   regarded  as  the  ability  of  the  campaign  against  Aids  message   carried  by   the  mass  media   to  induce  the  teenagers  to   change their   behaviours  to  sexual  to     promiscuity and  help  them  also  know  more  about  AIDS  and  suggested  preventive  measures.

The study is interested in the audience the teenager.  Do their sex and age affected the way they perceived the message.  Are they really getting the information (Exposure) has their level of education got some thing to do with their behavior and attitudes to sexual matter.

1.4       The  Significance  of  the  Study

It  is  envisaged  that   the  outcome  of  the  study  will  help   to  alert  teenage  population  on the   dangers inherent  in  AIDS   and  equally contribute  to  existing  literature  in the  area  of  mass  media  impact.

Also  the study  will  help   health  ministry  to  determine   which  of  the  mass  media  to  employ  in  disseminating  AIDS  information.

Above  all,  it   is   hoped  that   the   study  will  further  equip  mass  media  practitioners,  communication n  experts  and  researchers   to  come up  with  a  concrete  and  more  futuristic  approach  to  covering  all  manner  of  campaign  without  much  to  in  Nigeria.

1.5    Research Questions

1.           Do people get most information about AIDS through the mass media?

2.           Does campaign against AIDS relate to the use of condom during social intercourse amongst teenagers?  

3.           Does exposure against   AIDS campaign discourage   teenagers from sexual promiscuity?

4.           Do teenager  who  are  single  expose  themselves?

1.6 Research Hypotheses 

1.     Hi     Most respondent will get information about AIDS from the mass media more than other source.

  Ho: Most respondent will not get information about   AIDS from the through mass media more than other source .

2.           H2: Teenagers  who  are  Exposure to campaign against  AIDS  are  likely  to use  condom  and  abstain  from  sex  than  those  who  are  not. 

3.           Ho:   Teenagers  who  are to exposure to campaign against  AIDS  are  likely  to use  condom  and  abstain  from  sex  than  those  who  are  not. 

3.     H3:    Teenagers who are expose to  campaign  against  AIDS  will tend  to  discourage  from  sexual  promiscuity.  ­

H0:    Teenagers who are not expose to campaign against AIDS will not be discourage from sexual promiscuity.

        H4:    Teenagers   who  are not single  will  expose  themselves  to  campaign  against  AIDS  more  than  teenagers  who  are    married. 

H0:    Teenagers   who  are  single  will  not expose  themselves  to  campaign  against  AIDS  more  than  teenagers  who  are    single.

1.7    Assumption

An assumption is a phenomenon or event that can be measured or manipulated and is used in the development of constructs.  They are concepts that have been assigned values.

        Two set of assumption are identified in this research topic (a) Media impact as independent assumption (b) Sex as dependent variable.

1.8    Definition of Terms

The   conceptual and operational definition of terms in the study 

 Operational Definitions

Mass Media: - in this context  refers  to  various  communication  channels  (specifically a  radio  television  and   newspapers)  through  which  information  regarding  campaign  against   AID   communication teenagers  in  Enugu  state.

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