1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is the desire of every society to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. This could be possible through embarking on entrepreneurial activities by the citizens of the society. This is because the public sector cannot single-handedly drive in the desired level of development. National development connotes a total economics, technical, social and cultural advancement. It is all about people, how they attain self-realization and how they improve on their living standard. To realize these essential elements of their well being, the people need to develop their knowledge and skills on a continuous basis so that they can live and work to contribute to the sociality. Education and training then become very useful tools in preparing the individual to realize his/her potentials, contribute to the development of his/her personality and provision of skills and knowledge that would raise output and generate income, (Ikeanyionwu and Ekwue, 2013). Functional Education according to Ocho (2005) in Ikeanyionwu and Ekwue, (2013), is the process through which individuals are made participating members of their society. It enables them to become capable of living in the society and contribute towards its economic development. This shows that a functional education system takes cognizance of the dynamics of the labour market, equips its graduates with occupational skills and competences to enable them be self reliant. Furthermore, the success of a society in entrepreneurship depends on skills (education) acquired by the entrepreneurs. This owes to the fact that education leads to creativity. Education also equips a person with relevant skills which would lead him to better performance in his chosen career. Business education is an essential part of the preparation of youth for life and living. Business education is a programme of instruction which consists of two parts: (1) Office careers through initial refresher and upgrading education and (2) General Business Education – a programme that provides students with information and competencies which are needed by all in managing personal business affairs and in using the services of the business, (Osuala, 1969 as cited by Akanni, Yahuya and Kamalddeen, 2014). Business education as a functional educational programme provides individual with functional and suitable skills, knowledge, understanding, attitudes and values that would enable him/her to be fit in the field of work and contribute to economic development of the nation. In line with these, Business education which is described as an ‘education for business and about business’ could make a person to perform well as an entrepreneur. This is due to the fact that it equips the recipients with skills which are needed for business success. Furthermore, entrepreneurship focuses on the desire and ability of a person to search for investment opportunities within his environment and also be able to set up and run an enterprise based on the identified opportunities. Entrepreneurships skills development focuses on developing understanding an d capacity for pursuit, of entrepreneurial behaviours, skills and attributes in widely different contexts. Entrepreneurship can be defined as the propensity of mind to take calculated risks with confidence to achieve a predetermined business or industrial objective, (Umar, 2014). In their opinion, Tambuwal and Saulawa (2012), see basic entrepreneurship education as that form of education which is essential for life. Such education must equip an individual with necessary skills to service in his environment to that extent it is particular, rather than universal, problem centred rather than abstract, practical rather than theoretical and functional rather than been too small. Akanbi (2007) in Doggoh and Ahine (2012) defines entrepreneurship as the process whereby individuals become aware of business ownership as an option or viable alternative, develop ideas for business, learn the process of becoming an entrepreneur and undertake the initiation and development of business. To this end, business education is essential in entrepreneurship development, it provides the required entrepreneurial skills to students. Based on the presentation above, it is obvious that Business education could lead to the development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria and indeed all the countries of the world. This owes to the fact that based on the content of Business education; it has the potential of equipping the recipients with skills in Book-keeping/Accounting, Business management, Marketing, Business communication, Records management, etc which are all necessary for the promotion and survival of business enterprises. It is thus against this background that this paper looks at the role of Business education in promoting entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The economies of African countries are no doubt characterized by a growing population and a general decrease in formal employment as full employment guarantees stability, security, and balanced economic development. However, this full employment cannot be fully realized under the public sector-driven economy, hence the need for entrepreneurship education. Business education as introduced in institutions in Nigeria by the Nigerian Federal Government is expected to inculcate in students the practical skills and intentions needed to be self-employed and self-reliant, through the management of small –scale businesses. To this end, institutions of learning like secondary schools, university, polytechnic and other institutions must empower their students with the needed entrepreneurial skills and intentions that will enable them to be self-employed. Despite the reported growth of the adoption of business education by Nigerian schools, a gap seems to have developed between the introduction of business education and entrepreneurial development.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to assess business education programme for entrepreneurship development. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the benefits of business education to students and to Nigeria as a Nation.
2. To examine the awareness of business education programmes in Nigeria.
3. To examine the impact of business education programme on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
4. To examine the need for entrepreneurship development through Business Education.
5. To examine the relationship between business education and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
6. To suggest ways to curb the challenges facing business education in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the benefits of business education to students and to Nigeria as a Nation?
2. What is the level of awareness of business education programmes in Nigeria?
3. What are the impacts of business education programme on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria?
4. What is the need for entrepreneurship development through Business Education?
5. What is the relationship between business education and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria?
6. What are the ways to curb the challenges facing business education in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Business education programme has no impact on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
H1: Business education programme has a significant impact on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
H0: There is no significant relationship between business education and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between business education and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will have much significant on the government because despite the fact that students are integral part of a nation’s development, the disadvantaged position of students in Nigeria particularly when compared to men and the fact that they are ravaged by poverty, make case for efforts to be geared towards their empowerment. If this is achieved, it can have positive effect on the social, political, economic, and cultural development of Nigeria. In business, students tend to be more involved in establishing and leading entrepreneurships than in huge conglomerates. They are regarded as more successful entrepreneurs in fields such as fashion design, marketing, communication and media. They are often expected by society and their professional communities to be active in these sectors. Consequently students are making significant contributions to their families and country at large particularly in this era of economic distress. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of student’s entrepreneurship and empowerment. The findings will be of benefit to student’s entrepreneurs, students and researchers. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners when conducting a research on the role of business education on students in Nigeria.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the assessment of business education programme for entrepreneurship development, case study of Sokoto Metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Business: An organization or economic system where goods and services are exchanged for one another or for money.
Every business requires some form of investment and enough customers to whom its output can be sold on a consistent basis in order to make a profit.
Education: The wealth of knowledge acquired by an individual after studying particular subject matters or experiencing life lessons that provide an understanding of something. Education requires instruction of some sort from an individual or composed literature.
Business Education: Business Education is an aspect of Vocational and Technical Education, a specialized programme of instruction designed to provide individuals with knowledge, skills and attitudes leading to employability and advancement in office occupations as well as teaching business subjects. A subject offered under the 6-3-3-4 Nigerian education system and covers commerce, accounting, economics, entrepreneurship and office management.
OTHER SIMILAR BUSINESS EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS