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Project Topic:

DOMESTIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN NIGERIA

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5  ::   Pages: 35 ::   Attributes: N/A  ::   7,207 people found this useful

Project Department:

CIVIL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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Abstract

The ever popular issue on environment preservation and sustainability all over the world has led to innovations of new material using by treated generated from various sectors resulting from never ending research conducted. In Nigeria, faculty of Engineering of OsunState Polytechnic Iree, department of Civil Engineering decided to conduct this research in attempt to domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria. In many area or community untreated waste water will cause significant environmental damage to local water supply or resources. The aim and objective will be treated in order to meet standard for re-used and to used appropriate equipment to study or to determine the type of test to be used to treat each characteristics.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION
    Domestic waste water is the water that has been used by a community and which contains all the materials added to the water during its used. 
    It is thus composed of human body waste (faeces and urine) together with the water used for flushing toilet and sullage, which is the waste water resulting from personal washing, laundry, food preparation and the cleaning of kitchen utensils.
    Fresh water is a grey turbid that has an earthy but inoffensive odor. It contains large floating and suspended solids (such as faeces, rags, plastic, containers, and maize cabsi), smaller suspended solid (such as partially disintegrated faeces, paper, vegetable peel and very small solids in colloidal lie non-settle able) suspension as well as pollutants in true solutions.
    It is objectionable in appearance and hexadais and contents mainly because of the member disease causing (pathogenic) organisms. It contains (chapters) in warm climate waste water can soon loose it content to dissolve oxgen and so become “state” or septic, waste water has an offensive odour, usually of hydrogen sulphides.
    According to (Murray C.J.L and Lovez A.D 1996) water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid state, but the substance also has the solid state known as ice and gaseous state known as water vapour. It is the abundant source in the earths says (L.B ESCRITT).
    Ehindero (2006) says that availability of fresh water that is sustained by earths water cycle varies widely with geographical location. The quality and quantity of available fresh water is affected by the natural conditions and human activities. Even with abundance of water on earth, fresh water needed for human use is a fragile and dinite resource. Water is vital to maintaining the earth’s climate and it is essential to all forms of life. It is found in everywhere on the surface of the earth. It make up of more than two third of weight of human body and without water human being would dead few days.
    According to (Paul T. Williams) domestic waste treatment are numerous processes that can be used to clear up waters depending on the types and extent of contamination. Since waste water is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by influence says (ESREY, S.A AND HABICHT.J in 1986). Most water treated in industrial scale water treatment plant (WWTPS) which may include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. However, the use of septic tank is wide spread and aerobic treatment system is used on it, while an aerobic process are widely applied in the treatment of industrial waste water and biological sludge modern even system include tertiary treatment by micro filtration or synthetic membrane. After membrane filtrations, the treated waste water is indistinguishable from water of natural origin of drinking quality and required the use of an ozone bubbles percolate through the tank.
    According to Richard G. Feachman and David J. Bradjey. Domestic waste water treatment are used to change the physical, chemical or biological characters of the waste water to reduce its volume and or toxicity an to make the waste water surface for disposal (N.F GRDY) says Treatment processes are used to convert liquid and semi solid waste to suitable waste for disposal volume disposal reduction is the vital waste water treatment function non combustile waste water can be succeeded, size reduction include melting evaporation and incineration.     Domestic waste water treatment may be required for radioactive, hazardous and other types of waste. Some solid sanitary waste does not required treatment prior to disposal and hazardous water are treated by commercial treatment facilities mixed waste (which contain both hazardous and radioactive component) pose special management challenges since they are difficult to treat with existing treatment technologies. These waste water are prohibited from disposal unless they have been treated to specific standards.
    Domestic waste water usually comes from toilet urinals, facilities, bathroom and most floor drains. Varying amounts of water are used to carry these wastes through pipes to a treatment point. Deferent processing techniques are used to convert the waste for revse or disposal true sustainable development would not permit direct disposal of either liquid or solids before re-used.
    Responsible water management recognized the value of reducing waste water needs properly treated waste water can be used for toilet flushing (after approved disinfection) and irrigation (landscape needs or agricultural plantings) the solid separated from domestic waste water may be incorporated into the solid waste water (garbage) and composted into an excellent soil amendment product or an aerobically digested to produced a gaseous energy. Source and a residue that can be also be used as a soil amendment. If waste water recycling for toilet flushing is used without concurrent irrigation of vegetation, there will be a volume of excess liquid that must be sensitively disposed of this will be the amount of liquid waste coming in each day from all sources, less the necirculated amount used for toilet flushing.     Best disposal practices would use a suitable area for subsurface movement of the liquid through soil that provide good filtering and additional treatment before reaching any body of water. Direct discharge to a water way should be the lowest priority of alternative investigated, using treated, recycled waste water for toilet flushing rather than an equal volume of drinking quality water would save a larger amount of water there are also strong economic and environmental reasons for using one or more than 20 different low volume flushing toilet (1.6 gallons per flush) currently on the market, rather than the more conventional water wasting model. In sea water development sites, toilets may be flushed with sea water and processed with septic tank and subsurface treatment and disposal this provide a reliable system if the corrosive nature of sea water is addressed in selection of materials used in the piping plumping, pumping and treatment system similar water conservation can be realized through the use of flow restricted, fine spray shower hands and sink faucet aerators, spring leaded handles should be installed on faucet laundry waste volume can be reduced through the use of machines with subs-saver cycles park and tourism development that make use of water conservation devices should make an effort to reeducate their visitors on the amount of water (or energy) they have conserved during their stay, compared with the convention development. It is order to evaluate their performance. As with all pollution, sewage is best treated by not creating Its in the first place. Therefore human waste only becomes waste when there is no used for it.                 

1.2    AIM
    The main aim of this research is to carried out an investigation on how domestic waste water will be treated in order to meet standard for reused and with a view to acquiring and developing better understanding of domestic waste water treatment.

1.2.1    OBJECTIVES
This study will focus on the following: -
(1)    How domestic waste water can be treated for reused.
(2)    To used normal equipment to study or to determine the types of practical to be     used to treat each characteristic.
(3)    To use the appropriate equipment to get result or out come of the test.
(4)    Also to save a large amount of water there are also strong economic and     environmental reasons.

1.3    SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
    A study of this nature is significantly important because this serves as a eye opener to analysis of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria and to examine the manner or important of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria as another way of finding water.

1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    For the purpose of this research, I shall limit my study to the roles and importance of practical in the course of domestic waste water treatment in Nigeria which case study, in Osogbo, OsunState.

1.5        PLAN OF THE STUDY
    This study is divided into five chapters, chapter one gives a genera background to the study and screen as the introduction while  chapter two deals with literature review and chapter three deal with  research methodology which is used to present and analyze the method and equipment that using for the practical, chapter four deal with resulting of the practical. The last chapter deals with the summary, conclusion, recommendation and reference of the study.

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