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Project Topic:

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND THE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN IMMIGRATION SERVICE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 90 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract  ::   296 people found this useful

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ECONOMICS UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

Humans have always engaged in physical activity since the beginning of creation. This has played a significant role in the history of both Africa and the world at large (Akanji, 2012). From the history of the development of man, families, villages, and nation-states, migration cannot be viewed as inevitable. Therefore, migration may be traced back to the beginning of man, particularly when he wished to migrate in search of food during various famine seasons. At that time, people also migrated in order to escape the mob and seek freedom.As previously stated, almost every person and nation state has some internal or international migration history, which is primarily influenced by two factors known as the "Pull" and "Push" factors. Internal or external migration are both possible. Internal migration, which in this case can be from rural to urban or from Lagos to Abuja, describes people moving within the same geographical territory.

While international migration is concerned with the crossing of borders or international boundaries, examples include the South-South migration from Cameroon to Nigeria and the South-North migration from Nigeria to the United States of America. South-South Migration, also known as Regional Integration, and South-North Migration are the main topics of this study's analysis of international migration.

The sending state, the receiving state, and the migrant are all involved in the migration process for international migration (also known as emigration and immigration) to occur. In order to control migration activities in Nigeria as a sending nation state and a destination nation state, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and various migration policies come into play. A sizable number of people (nationals) engage in the global culture of international migration.

Through collaborations and agreements with other (states) in the international system, international movement (emigration and immigration) can greatly benefit a nation state. As seen in the literature, developing nations participate in international migration at a higher rate than industrialized nations (International Organization Migration, 2014:4). People tend to move from one place to another for a variety of reasons that are best known to them, which is also an essential part of man's nativity. According to the International Federal Red Cross and Red Crescent (2012), there are currently about 1 billion migrants worldwide who do not reside in their nation state of origin. These migrants could constitute the sixth nation state after China, India, the United States of America (USA), Indonesia, and Brazil (Adeola and Fayomi, 2012:1).

Due to the widespread education about the advantages and possibilities available in different countries through a variety of channels, including the internet and television, it is believed that international migration is on the rise. Immigration in particular is a touchy subject in discussions and debates within the international system. The tradition and culture of international migration in our immediate world, however, have been influenced by this foundation and tendency as well as many growing phases of globalization. The global benefits and opportunities that have emerged as a result of this process' many phases have caused anxiety. This advantage includes employment opportunities, access to international education credentials, interconnectedness, and international relations between nations that open up opportunities for interdependence, particularly in the area of human resources (Fayomi, 2013). The joy of being a citizen of the nation state that people so much want is another one of their many excellent advantages (Martin and widgren, 2002:8). International migration became a widespread culture and trend in our current world as a result of these imagined opportunities (Wickramasinghe, 2016:14).

It is concerning how quickly international migration is growing since, while it cannot be entirely halted, it can be effectively handled to the nation state's advantage, fostering socioeconomic progress (International Organization Migration, 2004:3). International migration (emigration and immigration), a significant and well-known economic factor, has the power to develop a nation state through a variety of means, such as by providing the labor force of the nation state with high-caliber skills and expertise for maximum productivity as earned results. However, since the mix of individual experts from different cultures and nationalities may make a nation state develop, international migration is important and should be encouraged (Kennisgewings, 2016:15). The experience of the 21st century with regard to international migration (emigration and immigration) issues is revealed to be the tip of the iceberg because international migration will continue to develop and increase as a result of migrants' exposure to and experiences with the aid of various developing stages of globalization (Martin and Widgren, 2002:3). International migration is inevitable due to the significant increase in demand for labor, as well as the "pull" and "push" variables that influence it. Due to these reasons, people (nationals) have a strong urge to emigrate from their home country.According to this, international migration is both an action and a response that renders the migrant unstoppable. However, the international system is actively concerned about this high rate of migration across borders due to the high increase and migrants' wishes to become citizens of a nation state at any costs or settle in their preferred locations (Immigration act, 2015). This clarifies why nation states guard their borders and entry points jealously. Without proper management and conduct of these migrants with regard to international migration activities, the nation-state will be overrun by unskilled workers and undesirable individuals, which could lead to annoyance and unfavorable outcomes (Federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, 2013:9). Skilled migrants are always assets to the receiving nation state (Regan, 2009: 150).

The wealth generated by Nigeria's oil industry in the 1970s and 1980s encouraged more people to immigrate to Nigeria from its neighboring West African nations (Adeola and Fayomi, 2012:2). The state of Nigeria shares borders with Cameroon, which is located in the eastern portion of Nigeria, Chad, which is located in the northern portion of Nigeria, and the Benin Republic, which is located in the south-west of Nigeria. Although the movement is seen as bringing peace and unity to West Africans and promoting trade that would lead to economic growth of the West African states, Nigeria is at a disadvantage due to its porous borders, which are primarily economical to her fellow West African neighbors and pose a threat to the socio-economic development and security of the nation state (Abiodun, 2015; Nwagwugwu et al, 2015). In all these, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) plays an important role.

More so, the topic of emigration has been a trend in Nigeria for graduates, experts, and hustlers due to the lack of socioeconomic development among other factors in the Nigerian state. The hustlers, in particular, frequently cross the nation state's porous boundaries in pursuit of a greener pasture (Akinyemi, 2013). If Nigeria as a nation state truly wants to benefit from international migration (emigration and immigration), as the developed world currently does, she has a responsibility through the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).As was previously mentioned, the Nigerian Immigration Service (the agency) has an unusual position in the management of international migration activities (immigration and emigration), which are connected to the socioeconomic development and security of the Nigerian state. Since the Nigerian Immigration Service is seen as the nation-gatekeeper, state's doing its duties well can result in a respectable degree of socioeconomic development, higher quality of life, and increased security (Ministry of interior, 2016 and Evans, 2016:12).

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF) was transformed into the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) in 1958. The Chief Federal Immigration Officer was the department's then-designated leader (Kpmg, 2015). The agency had a simple approach to accomplish its goals during this time, as well as a limited legality and scope profile. The department was primarily in charge of the business and visa sections. On August 1st, 1963, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) department became autonomous and came under the direction and control of the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs.

While the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs (FMIA), now formally known as the Ministry of Interior, is in charge of upholding Nigeria's integrity and internal security in order to encourage good governance. The Ministry of Interior also oversees a few organizations that are considered to be tools for their efficiency. These organizations include the Federal Fire Service (FFS), Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), Civil Defense Corps (CDC), and Nigerian Prison Service (NPS). The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) serves as the study's primary source of information on Nigeria's socioeconomic development and the state's security in relation to international migration activities (Ministry of Interior, 2013).

          The Director of Immigration (DI), the department's chief, is currently known as the Comptroller General (CG) of the Nigerian Immigration Service, which we are still looking at (KPMG, 2015). An immigration act was passed in the same year (1963), but research shows that it was not strictly enforced or effectively put into effect, despite the fact that it was intended to deal with the law governing the entrance, habitation, and employment of immigrants. This organization, the Nigerian Immigration Service, was created by an Act of Parliament (Edet, 2014). The Nigerian Police Force sent the first representatives (Chhangani, 1983). The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is mandated by law to control the flow of people into and out of the country. There are two (2) groups of people involved here: immigrants and emigrants.

The introduction of Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card (CERPAC) in 2002 as it made the institution improve from paper work type Residence Permit which admitted some errors is one of the many accomplishments of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) (Williams, 2015). The introduction of online payments also paved the door for e-revenue collections and improved the effectiveness of the agency in carrying out its obligations. The federal government later adopted a similar strategy (NIS, 2017 and Olawale, 2010). Additionally, a forensic laboratory was introduced to check holders' travel documents.The officers in charge of this laboratory are from the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), and they have extensive training in document fraud detection methods from both domestic and international sources (NIS, 2017).

The agency established a border patrol corps in 2013, and that year also saw the establishment of 30 more control posts and 27 backup patrol bases, bringing the total number of control posts and bases in Nigeria to 114 and 372, respectively. The organization (Nigerian Immigration Service) has also started a number of reforms to prevent travel document fraud as well as to strengthen the e-passport system against potential manipulation from various criminals. In order to address various issues with e-payment platforms, the service also contracted a data center(Parradang, 2015).

A new CERPAC (Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card), which addressed the flaws of the previous CERPAC, was reintroduced in the sector in 2014. The improved machine-readable characteristics of this new CERPAC (Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card) assist the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in resolving and identifying a respectable number of security and fraud concerns (Williams, 2015).

The former Machine Readable Passport (MRP), which relied primarily on human processes, was replaced with the Readable Electronic Passport, also known as the Electronic Passenger Automated Registration System (E-PARS) (Akinsuyi, 2005, Williams, 2015 and NIS, 2017). This is also considered a success because it established the Nigerian state as the first nation-state in Africa and one of the first 40 (forty) nations to embrace this system globally. Since the e-passport contains the individuals' biometric information, this has helped combat transnational crimes and unreported/illegal international migration, especially identity theft and fraud among other illegal acts and intentions(Williams, 2015).

The establishment of a passport office by the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in Warri, Delta state, was successful. Additionally, more residence permit production centers opened. Additionally, Automatic Rising Bollards were being built at the headquarters of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). At the main entrance of the Alhaji Shehu Shagari complex's Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) headquarters, the organization was successful in installing security scanning equipment (Ministry of interior, 2017).

Additionally, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), in accordance with the Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (2017), introduced a new immigration regulation to supplement the 2015 immigration act, which was introduced to meet the standards of the new International Migration activities around the world. The old Immigration Act of 1963 is replaced by this one. This new law placed a strong emphasis on controlling border crimes, particularly terrorism. This immigration law was put in place to address the needs and trends associated with current international migration activities. The regulation was also created to give the Nigerian Immigration Service more authority.

In addition to her accomplishment, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has also made progress in the fight against border mismanagement by establishing a bilateral commission with neighboring West African States, a border post at Seme, and a border management information system (MIDAS) at the Ilela border with Niger. However, as a migration agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) under a nation-state, more is anticipated from this organization (International Organization of Migration 2014: 6). The Nigerian government and the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) are supposed to collaborate for the socioeconomic growth and security of the Nigerian state.This suggests that the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is in charge of informing the current administration on issues relating to international migration and how they may affect the socioeconomic development and security of the Nigerian state. This report speaks out by disclosing that the Nigerian Immigration Service keeps an eye on actions involving international migration because it might be a tool for the nation of Nigeria's socioeconomic development and security. (Idio and others, 2015) The study suggests that skilled immigrants can contribute to a nation-workforce state's in a way that is both high-quality and fruitful (West, 2011). This is one way that immigration from abroad is important for the socioeconomic development of Nigeria.

1.2Statement of the Problem

A nation-state must have security in order to prosper, as literature has demonstrated that there is a link between international migration and socioeconomic development. The Nigerian Immigration Service is Nigeria's primary organization in charge of overseeing international migration activities (NIS). Above all else, the agency's (Nigerian Immigration Service) responsibilities include all aspects of international migration, from the identity of the immigrant to the process of leaving the nation-state or entering the nation-state.However, the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) faces a number of difficulties that could prevent it from achieving these successes (Socioeconomic Development and Security). These difficulties include the porousness of Nigeria's borders, the absence of the agency in some areas, and difficulties affecting the Nigerian state, such as the influx of migrants with little to no skill and without documentation from nearby nations in the region as well as the emigration of highly skilled professionals.How has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) communicated with the Federal Government (FG) of Nigeria in light of these alleged activities and experiences? How has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) relayed to the Nigerian Federal Government (FG) the reasons why these people—Nigerian migrants—are departing and how the country-state may stop the exodus of such a large number of skilled migrants? Has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) accepted the duty of advising the Nigerian Federal Government on matters relating to the country's infrastructures and borders? How has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) conveyed the demands and recommendations of different qualified people on the need for appealing "pull" factors given that international migration can also support socio-economic development?Has the NIS agency also informed Nigerians of the necessity to prevent unauthorized international migration for the state's good name and a strategy for socioeconomic growth of the state (IOM, 2009)?

Finally, given that Nigeria needs highly skilled labor to support growth, has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) informed the current administration and the Nigerian public about the advantages of "qualified immigrants" into the nation state? It goes without saying that a sizable portion of immigrants entering the Nigerian state are either unskilled or low skilled, which can negatively impact a nation-labor state's force and production. Additionally, it has been revealed that the majority of the Boko-haram terrorist organizations and the Fulani herdsmen are not Nigerian. This begs the question of how they entered the country so quickly and without the Nigerian Immigration Service noticing them.The nation state's political, security, planning, crime control, environmental management, sociocultural development, and economic growth, to name a few, have all been severely hampered by this unchecked influx of migrants. The problem statement that sparked the investigation of the aforementioned topic includes all of these and more.

  1. Research Questions

The research questions are as follows;

 

  1. What are the duties and roles of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)?

 

  1. How important is the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) responsibilities in the security aspect of the Nigerian state?

 

  1. How can the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) help in the socio-economic development of the Nigerian state?

 

  1. What are the challenges facing the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)?
    1. Research Objectives

The specific objectives of this study are;

  1. To examine the role and relevance of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in the Nigerian state.
  2. To determine the importance of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) to the security of the nation state.
  3. To determine the duties of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in the socio-economic development of Nigerian state.
  4. To identify the challenges facing the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).

1.5    Hypotheses

 

The study tests the following hypotheses stated in its null form;

H0: There is no significant impact of the role Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) international migration of International migration on the socio-economic development of Nigeria.

 

H0: There is no significant relationship between the role Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) international migration of International and socio-economic development of Nigeria.

1.6    Significance of the Study

The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is no doubt one of the special offices in a nation-state, as it deals with the gates of the Nigerian state in respect to the coming in and going out (emigration and immigration) of persons automatically dealing with the nation state’s security and her socio-economic development since literatures validates the fact that International Migration activities can bring socio-economic development to a state.

The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) among other agencies is chosen because the agency is one of the special and sensitive offices in a nation-state. The agency is also involved as it gives permissions to migrants in and out of the nation-state. Relating this study to international relations, the study explains the benefits of citizens relations in the globe (immigrants) and how the Nigerian Immigration Service plays a role in this interconnectedness and communication of these nationals (migrants) as it has the legal authority and responsibility to secure the nation state as well as initiate socio-economic development within its own quota and as well protect the image of the Nigerian state through the thorough checking of immigrants and emigrants (migrants). Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) out of many other sectors is also held responsible for the security of the nation-state as they are the gate keepers of the Nigerian state.

1.7    Scope of the Study

This study centers on the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) as an agency that have legal responsibilities to influence socio-economic development in the nation state and the migrants who engage in these activities.

1.8    Limitations to the Study

In the course of this study little hindrances were encountered, these were the inability to get books on Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) from the library especially at the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) library, in Lagos State Nigeria. Due to the inability to get books, only one book was found in the library that relates to the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), this book is titled “Illegal Aliens under Nigerian Law written by Chhangani, R.C. in the year 1983. Other materials gotten from the above Library (Nigerian Institute of International Affairs NIIA) were outdated information of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) which were in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.

There were only few recent newspapers that emphasized on the above mentioned agency (Nigerian Immigration Service). All the materials gotten from this library (Nigerian institute of International Affairs) apart from the one book were all newspapers.

 

Finally, the refusal of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) officials at Alagbon (the Old Secretariat block Lagos State) and the P.R.O at the headquarters (Federal Capital ,Abuja) to permit interviews due to the rules and instructions of not revealing information of the Service (Nigerian Immigration Service) limited this study as well.

However, the study had to make alternatives by requesting for questionnaire and the agency’s (Nigerian Immigration Service) magazines in the absence of the requested interviews also sourcing materials from journals, articles from websites of the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) other International Migration agencies such as International Migration Organization (IMO), newspapers, and some unpublished works turned out to be good alternatives.

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