The study was aimed at investigating the impact of sustainable development goals on socio-economic development, a case study of Oyo-East Local Government. The survey research was used in this study to sample the opinion of respondents. This method involved random selection of respondent who were administered with questionnaires. The target population of the study comprised of residents of selected areas in Oyo-east L. G. A. The questionnaire administered was one hundred and ten (110) copies and one hundred copies retrieved which constitute the sample size. The descriptive and analytical approach was adopted using Chi-square to test and analyze the hypotheses earlier stated. The findings revealed that there is a significant impact of sustainable development goals to Oyo East socio-economic development and that there is a significant relationship between sustainable development goals and socio-economic development in Oyo East L.G.A. It was therefore concluded from the findings that the Sustainable Development Goals have the enormous potential for the sustainable development of Nigeria, as a developing country. It was recommended that sound economic growth measures should be embarked upon to raise the present slow rate to about 10% and above. This will trickle down to enormous benefits for the poor.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Sustainable development, according to the United Nations (UN), is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystems services upon which the economy and society depends. The desirable end result of this is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural systems. Sustainable development is that development that meets our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. According to the United Nations, the components that work together, to produce sustainable development are economic development, social development and environmental projection (UN General Assembly, 2005). These three must be conceptualized together, planned together and implemented together by a government to achieve the desired results. So, sustainable development in a way has a moral dimension that demands a great sense of responsibility from the leader (government) and the follower (citizen). The SDGs came into effect in January, 2016 and it is a (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) policy guideline and funding programme for the next fifteen years. The goals are to be accomplished by all member nations (189 countries) by 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also known as the Global Goals (CGs) are structured to end poverty, protect the environment and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is a target as well as yardstick for every country to measure and explore its response to and business of making life conducive for her present and future citizens. It is about recreating a safe world for all through equipping of every human being with the tools for a decent and healthy living through mutual effort. Development entails the full realization of the human potential and a maximum use of the nation’s resources for the benefit of all (Bamgbose, 2011). If development is about human beings, then that which gives human beings the capacity to function cannot but be so important. Thus, British Council (2017) explained that since development is about sharing experiences and ideas to find better ways of working together as human beings, the languages of initiative, of education, of trade, of creative expression, of justice and of peace-building, are so crucial to sustainable development.
The conceptualization of development has undergone metamorphosis since the Second World War ended in 1945. The meaning and the conceptualization of development was greatly influenced by the ideological contradiction between the Socialist East and the Capitalist West. The issue of ideology of development posed a problem to conceptualizing development. Growth theorists argued that development is an outcome of economic growth while other scholars like Rostow (1952), HarrodDomar (1957) posited that economic development and growth result from structural changes, savings and investments in an economy. The failure of economic growth in most developing and developed countries of Latin America and Africa, in the late 1970s, to deliver corresponding social goods and solve problems of unemployment, poverty, disease, hunger, illiteracy and ever increasing crimes and wars, necessitated the new thinking, and redefinition of development from economic growth centered perspective to human centered approach (Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013). In this light Chandler (2007) sees development as a broader concept that recognizes psychological and material factors that measure human well-being. Development therefore is a multifaceted phenomenon and man centered. It is the process of empowering people to maximize their potentials, and develop the knowledge capacity to exploit nature to meet daily human needs (Rodney, 1972; Nnoli, 1981; Ake, 2001). The transformation of the society and the emergence of new social and economic organizations are critical indicators of development (Stiglitz cited in Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013).
Socio-economic development is a product of development and can be defined as the process of social and economic transformation in a society. Socio-economic development embraces changes taking place in the social sphere mostly of an economic nature. Thus, socio-economic development is made up of processes caused by exogenous and endogenous factors which determine the course and direction of the development. Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy and levels of employment. Changes in less-tangible factors are also considered, such as personal dignity, freedom of association, personal safety and freedom from fear of physical harm, and the extent of participation in civil society. Causes of socio-economic impacts are, for example, new technologies, changes in laws, changes in the physical environment and ecological changes.
The Sustainable Development Goals are an integral part of Oyo State’s efforts to improve the livelihoods of the state’s residents. By providing comprehensive targets for all aspects of development and coordinating the efforts of all actors, Oyo state will only achieve its potential if it achieves the Sustainable Development Goals by the target date of 2030. To this end, the Oyo East L.G.A Development Plan 2016-2020 has fully integrated the Sustainable Development Goals and specifies concerted policy actions to help achieve each goal. Localizing and domesticating the sustainable development goals beyond the national level will be crucial to achieving sustained success. Not only must the majority of interventions needed to achieve the goals occur at the local level, but the political buy-in and commitment to reorient public spending and governance improvements must be replicated at all levels of the political system to prevent corruption, vested interests and political diversion from compromising progress. This is even more essential in federal systems such as Nigeria’s where political commitment and economic interests aligned with the SDGs must be generated effectively to coordinate with national level investments.
Scholars have identified strong links between sustainable development goals and socio-economic development in Nigeria (Nwanegbo and Odigbo, 2013; Chandler, 2007). There is a consensus in the literature that sustainable development goals and socio-economic development are two different and inseparable concepts that affect each other, and this has naturally triggered debates on socio-economic development nexus.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, Nigerian government has come up with various programmes and initiatives aimed at making life better for the citizens. In some of these cases, the Federal Government has aligned itself with global initiatives that emanate from the United Nations. In spite of the benefits associated with most of these laudable initiatives, it seems that most developing countries hardly realized those goals. The year 2016 was the target year for the actualization of sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), yet the level of poverty, hunger, inequality in education, Rate of unemployment, among others have increased instead of reducing. What could have been responsible for this? Could it be that the various stakeholders have no clear definition of what these goals were all about?
Sustainability is a continuous goal in which we need to keep achieving in Nigeria considering the daily challenges we encounter in our day-to-day operations. This study looks at these existing problems of what can be done in Nigeria to achieve a sustainable economic development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sustainable development goals on socio-economic development. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The studywill be useful source of information particularly to Nigerian government for evolving means/strategies to rigorously monitor the implementation of sustainable development goals in order to propel economic growth. Policy makers and the governmental agencies will find this study relevant, since it provides insight on the interaction between an effective sustainable development goals and socio-economic development in Nigeria. This understanding will help the government to be more result-oriented in enhancing socio-economic development.The study would also be of immense benefit to students of different department, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no impact of sustainable development goals to Oyo East socio-economic development.
H1: There is a significant impact of sustainable development goals to Oyo East socio-economic development.
H0: There is no significant relationship between sustainable development goals and socio-economic development in Oyo East L.G.A.
H1: There is a significant relationship between sustainable development goals and socio-economic development in Oyo East L.G.A.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the impact of sustainable development goals on socio-economic development. (A Case Study of Oyo East L.G.A, Oyo State)
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: A possible future effect or result, something that is suggested without being said directly. The fact, state of being involved in or connected to something.
Economic: The theories, principles, and models that deal with how the market process works. It attempts to explain how wealth is created and distributed in communities, how people allocate resources that are scarce and have many alternative uses, and other such matters that arise in dealing with human wants and their satisfaction.
Development: The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.
Socio economic: (Also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy.
Socio-economic Development: Is the process of social and economic development in a society
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG’S) are series ofeight – time – bound development goals that seek to address issues of poverty, education, equality, health and the environment to be achieved by the year 2015. They were agreed upon by the international community at the United Nation’s Millennium summit, held in New York in September 2000.
The Nigerian’s National Economic Empowerment AndDevelopment Strategy (NEEDS): This is Nigeria’s plan forprosperity. It is the people’s way of letting the government know what kind of Nigeria they wish to live in, now and in the future. It is the government ways of letting the people know how it plans to overcome the deep and pervasive obstacles to progress that the government and people have identified. It is also a way of letting the international community know where Nigeria standard in the region and in the world and how it wishes to be supported.
1.10 CASE STUDY/HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Oyo, usually referred to as Oyo State to distinguish it from the city of Oyo, is an inland state in southwestern Nigeria. Its capital is Ibadan, the third most populous city in the country and formerly the second most populous city in Africa. Oyo State is bordered to the north by Kwara State, to the east by Osun State, and to the southwest by Ogun State and the Republic of Benin. With a projected population of 7,840,864 in 2016, Oyo State is the fifth most populous in the country.
The vast majority of Oyo State residents are Yoruba, and the Yoruba language remains dominant. Nicknamed the "Pace Setter State", present-day Oyo State sits on territory formerly ruled by various kingdoms and empires. The Oyo Empire was a powerful Yoruba empire that ruled in much of the area from c. 1300 to 1896. Built in the 1830s, modern city of Oyo is considered a remnant of the imperial era, being referred to as "New Oyo" (Ọ̀yọ́ Àtìbà) to distinguish itself from the former capital to the north, 'Old Oyo' (Ọ̀yọ́-Ilé). The Alaafin of Oyo continues to serve a ceremonial role in the city.
Oyo East is a Local Government Area in Oyo State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Kosobo, Oyo State and has the district and wards of Agboye, Molete, Ajagba, Alaodi, Modeke, Apaara, Apinni, Balogun, Jabata, Oke Apo, Oluajo, Owode, Araromi that make up the council area.It has an area of 144 km2 and a population of 123,846 at the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 211.
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