BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An effective educational system has been variously defined around certain intoned parameters such parameters according to Mogbo (2015). Include;
To achieve effective science education in our country, we need to change the science and technology curricula, and emphasis has to shift from content to processes of science (Omiko, 2016). This would also lead to changes in instructional techniques. Otobo (2012) observed that the need for curriculum changes in education in recent years has led to consequent shift of emphasis from content to processes of science; from the traditional chalk and talk (lecture) method to modern methods of teaching science such as activity oriented method of instruction, laboratory method, concept-mapping, enquiry method, guided discovery method of instruction among others. In these modern methods of science instruction emphasis is on changing students’ attention from being passive receivers of information to active manipulators and users of concrete materials during instruction. This means that the students are involved actively in the learning process by themselves. Ajunwa in Ezejitu (2009) and Otobo (2012) observed that students by nature are investigators; they have the tendency to manipulate materials and are curious to find out what happens. Ezejitu (2009) noted that most activities of young children are underlined by tireless curiosity and a desire to find out through personal exploration. Nwoji (2014) in his contribution, maintained that despite changes in theories of instruction and designs of curriculum, there is unanimous agreement that children are likely to acquire scientific and technological skills that will enable them solve problems associated with human needs and self-reliance by experiencing science through firsthand experience in handling concrete materials themselves during lessons. The recent reforms in science and Technology curricula involve creating enabling environment and opportunities for students to interact with one another and the instructional materials during lessons. Eniayeju and Danjuma, (2008), enjoined science teachers to create circumstances for students to interact with each other and to use a number of teaching techniques that could arouse interest and curiosity, provide information and help formulate codes of behaviours. Massials (1991) observed that discovery method of instruction is a process of self-learning whereby students generate concepts or principles and ideas with very little intervention from the teacher. Discovery according to Otobo (2012) is a psychological construct that is based on the need to provide relevant motivation for students to participate in the generalization of new ideas related to the subject of instruction. Gbamanja (1991) state that discovery occurs when a learner is involved in utilizing his/her mental processes and physical activity to mediate, discover, or grasp some principles, concepts or ideas in various situations. Generally, in teaching and learning situations, discovery method of teaching is a problem solving method that is meant for self-development and sustainability. It enables the learners to identify an objective, plan for its actualization and with a little help or guidance from the teacher (Ezejitu, 2009 and Otobo, 2012). In science education, guided discovery method of teaching is believed to increase retention of materials learnt because the learner organizes the new information and integrates it with the information or knowledge that has already been accumulated and stored. Learners under normal circumstance act as investigators in a challenging learning environment; in doing this, Gallenstain (2015) observed that the learners usually place a newly introduced object in a category that they have previously discovered or identified. Omiko (2015), Ali in Ezejilu (2009) and Otobo (2012) noted that one of the ways of making teaching interesting is through the use of the discovery method. The discovery method of teaching and learning of science encourages the learners to be actively involved in finding out on their own, the procedure, principles and concepts involved in any topic, and this will subsequently aid them in carrying out problem solving in any topic. In agreement with this Chikamai (1998) and Otobo (2012) stated that of all the strategies used in teaching science, the discovery method tends to attract most students attention. However, because of the importance of science and technology education in our national development and sustainability, the researchers were motivated to carry out a study on effect of Guided Discovery method of teaching and learning of physics in senior secondary school level in Nasarawa State of Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is high rate of poor achievement of students in physics in senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) over the years. This could be as of the teachers use ineffective methods and strategies in physics teaching which among other factors have contributed to the student’s poor achievement in physics at the senior secondary school. This poor achievement in physics has necessitated the need for physics in senior secondary school by the Federal Government. The available literature on methods of teaching in physics education suggests the need to employ new and innovative teaching strategy such as guided discovery method. There is need to explore more into the best methods of teaching specific topics in physics in other to enhance students’ achievement. Therefore, the problem of this study is posed as a question; what is the effect of guided discovery methods of teaching and learning physics on student’s achievement and interest in physics?
AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine effect of guided discovery method of teaching and learning physics in senior secondary schools. Other general objectives of the study are:
H01: There is no significant effect of guided discovery method of teaching and learning on student’s achievement in physics.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to physics teachers, curriculum planners, Ministry of Education, teacher training institution and researchers and psychologists. The outcome of this study will expose physics teachers to more effective techniques of promoting learning, which help to minimize student’s low achievement in the subjects. It will make their teaching/learning activities successful. Since guided discovery method is interaction-oriented, it will equally enable them see the need why they should ensure that their classes posses qualities of guided classroom which include being democratic, and allowing active participation of learners. In a class where all these qualities exist, students will be active, inquisitive and will be able to transfer what they learnt in the classroom to real life situation Also, it will enable basic science teachers to adjust their teaching pattern and recognize students’ ownership of ideas which will be negotiated in the classroom. This will enable the teachers to enjoy teaching as students achieve highly The findings will be of use to the curriculum planners, to plan physics curriculum in such a way that the contents will be filled with activities which teachers and students will do together. Curriculum planners would find the result of this study a relevant tool for curriculum reforms and improvement in line with the Nigerian curriculum 6-3-3-4 which recommends students centred pedagogical method that can assist in achieving the national educational goals which include, the acquisition of appropriate skills, mental, physical and social abilities and competence that will equip the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society. The federal ministry of education and other researchers will through this study organize workshops, seminars and conferences for review of pedagogy in physics teaching to address the issue of integrating new ideas on teaching of basic science. It might help them in identifying the concept of learners’ cognitive style and teaches instructional style in educational programme planning that could be included in later review of physics curriculum. It will provide useful information to teachers training institutions. These institutions can enrich their method courses or develop new programme of instructions based on the findings of this study.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on effect of guided discovery method of teaching and learning physics in senior secondary schools in Keffi L.G.A of Nasarawa state
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Guided Discovery: This is also known as an inductive approach. Is a technique where a teacher provides examples of a language item and helps the learners to find the rules themselves.
Achievement: This refers to performance of the students. Here, achievement refers to the scores obtained by secondary school students in science before and after using guided discovery method of teaching and learning.
Learning: Measurable and relatively permanent change in behaviour through experience, instruction, or study. Knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study.
Physics: The branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms. The physical properties and phenomena of something.
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