BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Science and Technology education is a veritable tool for scientific and technological advancement of any nation. This fact is enshrined in the National Policy on Education of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2014) which states that science and technology education should among other things equip students to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology. The policy also emphasized that science and technology teaching and learning are viable instruments for inculcating necessary scientific knowledge, skills and competencies. In order to inculcate the necessary scientific knowledge, skills competencies and attitudes in various developmental strategies such as World Declaration on Education for All (EFA) are put in place in Nigeria educational system. Other strategies like the NEEDS (National Economic Empowerment Development Strategies) and SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) were put in place. In order to meet these goals, the Nigerian Government overhauled its existing science and technology curriculum to cater for the needs of the nation as it aspires to be among the 20 top economies in the globe by the year 2020 (FRN, 2012). Basic Science and Technology education has become one of the best avenues to meet the global challenges facing the Nigerian nation. Despite the importance of Basic Science and Technology in the country’s quest for technological advancement, there has been seeming ineffectiveness in the teaching and learning of the subject which in turn is strongly affecting the attainment of the country’s laudable objectives and goals of developing a scientific and technologically literate citizenry. Researchers such as Bukunola and Idowu (2012), Osokoya (2013), Alabi (2014), Oni (2014) Kabutu, Oloyede and Bandele (2015) and Samuel (2017) attested that the poor instructional strategies employed in the teaching of the subjects by teachers contribute to students under achievement. Students find it difficult to understand the basic concepts taught, hence a child that is not well grounded in Science and Technology at the basic level, will not show interest in offering core science and technology subjects at the Senior Secondary level. Cooperative learning groups have been promoted as a good way to bring about positive attitudes toward instruction, mastery of content, and self-esteem. For example, students who score in the 50th percentile when learning competitively would score in the 69th percentile when taught cooperatively (McKeachie, 2002). In a meta-analysis of research on cooperative learning in high school and college chemistry courses, Bowen (2009) found that students in the 50th percentile with traditional instruction would be in the 64th percentile in a cooperative learning environment. Affective outcomes were also improved by the use of cooperative learning. Relative to students involved in individual or competitive learning environments, cooperatively taught students exhibited better social skills and higher self-esteem, as well as more positive attitudes about their educational experience, the subject area, and the college (Johnson, Johnson & Smith, 2010). Towns, Kreke and Fields, (2009) used field notes and survey data to analyze students’ attitudes toward group activities in a physical chemistry class. The students viewed the group work as a positive force in their learning, and they also valued the interactions for promoting a sense of community in the classroom. One of the cooperative strategies, which is the focus of this study is Peer Tutoring learning approach. Peer tutoring is a flexible, peer-mediated strategy that involves students serving as academic tutors and tutees. Usually, a higher performing student is paired with a lower performing student or students to review critical academic or behavioral concepts. Peer tutoring allows students to receive individual assistance. Moreover students have increased opportunities to interact in smaller groups. According to Spencer (2009), Peer tutoring increases self-confidence and self-efficacy. The term project method refer to a wider variety of educational programmes learning experiences, institutional instructions and academic support strategies that are intended to address the distinct learning need interests aspirations or cultural background of individual students and groups of students, to accomplish this goal schools teachers, guidance and counselors and other educational specialist they employ wide variety of education method from modifying assessments and instructional strategies in the classroom to entirely redesigning the way in which students are grouped and taught in a school (Adinoyi, 2009). The project method is an educational enterprise in which children solve a practical problem over a period of several days or weeks. It may involve building a rocket, designing a playground, or publishing a class newspaper. The project may be suggested by the teacher, but they are planned and executed as far as possible by the students themselves, individually or in groups. Project work focuses on applying, not imparting, specific knowledge or skills, and on improving student involvement and motivation in order to foster independent thinking, self-confidence, and social responsibility (Kilpatrick, 2015). The main purpose of teaching is to transfer knowledge to the learners. For effective teaching and learning to take place, the teacher needs to use different methods and approaches in teaching. Unfortunately, poor achievement in Basic Science and Technology has been attributed to poor approach to teaching employed by teachers (Samuel, 2017; Alabi, 2014; Osokoya, 2013).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The learning of Basic science and Technology requires more practical approach for effective performance in the subject. Negedu, Daluba and Noah,  stated over the years, students performance in introductory has not been encouraging. They further stated the poor performance is very evident in the number of students that enrol for science including vocational and technical related subjects at the senior secondary school level which goes further to affect their enrolment at the tertiary institution. Joshua  stated that students performed poorly in subjects like physics and mathematics could only mean that they had not been properly groomed in subjects like Basic Technology at js1, js2, and js3. This may be attributed to the teaching method used by teacher. It is on this note that the peer tutoring and Group project method will be introduced to see its effect on students’ academic achievement in the subject.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine effect of peer tutoring and project method on students’ academic achievement and retention in basic science and technology in Minna metropolis. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant effect of peer tutoring technique and project method on academic achievement of Basic Science and Technology students
H1: There is a significant effect of peer tutoring technique and project method on academic achievement of Basic Science and Technology students.
H0: There is no significant relationship between peer tutoring, project method and academic achievement of Basic Science and Technology students
H1: There is a significant relationship between peer tutoring, project method and academic achievement of Basic Science and Technology students
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit to school head teachers by revealing certain information concerning the areas neglected by teachers in the implementation of basic science and technology and provide ways through which the heads of schools can monitor teachers‘ efficiency in teaching of basic science and technology. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
The study is restricted to effect of peer tutoring and project method on students’ academic achievement and retention in basic science and technology in Minna metropolis
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tutor:A person employed to instruct another in some branch or branches of learning, especially aprivate instructor.
A teacher of academic rank lower than instructor in some American universities and colleges.
Peer tutoring: Is a teaching strategy that uses students as tutors. The student pairs might work on academic, social, behavioral, functional, or even social skills. There are many different ways to pair students, such as by ability level, skills mastered, or age. The following model descriptions will assist you in selecting the correct model based on certain criteria.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS