1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teaching aids are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process. Teaching aids include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Teaching aids play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use teaching aids to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) . According to Abdullahhi (2010), teaching aids are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are use to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the teaching aids. The use of teaching aids can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment. Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Uses of teaching aids can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with teaching aids in which the learner will see goals he want to attain. Brown et.al (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:
Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teachers knowledge of the subject. Teaching aids are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aginna-Obu 2000). The nature of the learning and the wide range of student’s abilities in the average classroom necessitate a high degree of teachers and experience in the method of presenting the subject matter. This has been truncated with the unavailability of teaching aids in schools. However, a common goal a teacher carries wherever he is, is to make lesson presentation vitally fresh, stimulating and testing for their students. This will help the teacher to individualize the learning method as well as the content and also working according to the student’s need. This goal can be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials. The need to emphasis on the use and importance of teaching aids in any learning and teaching environment cannot be underestimated. For any learning to take place, the teacher has to make use of these materials that would enable him to teach effectively. Equipment and other teaching aids to the some extent determine the method the teacher uses in teaching biology. The method adopted could be demonstration, experimental, discussion etc. It is generally agreed by both teachers and school administrator that apart from the chalkboard and textbooks which are often available for the teacher to use, there are other materials that aid or are capable of complementing the teacher’s effort in teaching/learning process. Those materials are commonly called “instructional materials”. One of the reasons why students in our secondary schools sometime find it difficult to comprehend immediately what is being taught by the teacher is the non availability of teaching aids that can easily convey the message of the lesson to the learners. Orji (2000) asserts that teaching aid is “the guidance of learning activities” that “a teacher uses to motivate and arouse student’s desire to learn” From the fore-going statement, it can be agreed that for effective learning to take place, a student need to be properly guided by the teacher by way of employing various method and means through which his teaching could be meaningful.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The use of teaching aids has lots of general benefits that guide a greater impact in teaching and learning process. The teacher’s level of resourcefulness, creativity, and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality education. These are expressed in how well the teacher is able to perceive, create and use the relevant information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities. In spite of the importance of teaching aids to academic performance of students, it is observed that most students complain of being taught principles that seem to be abstract in nature. Students perform poorly in biology because; the biology classes are usually too large and heterogeneous in terms of ability level. Snezana et al. (2011) outlined in his study that academic achievement in lessons began with experiment or slide demonstration was higher than lessons beginning with lecture method. In addition, the laboratories are ill-equipped and the Biology syllabus is over loaded (Ajayi, 1988). The Nigerian government, at all levels has over the years placed enormous emphasis on teaching aids in shaping efforts and strategies aimed at improving students standard of learning in the country but both theoretical and empirical literature failed to captive the real factors as to why the standard of education in the country still remain very low. Okereke (2009) observes that many schools in the state cannot boast of teaching aids. He contends that every government should contend with the issue of making education her priority to help improve our standard of learning by providing the required teaching aids to schools. Obasi (2010) holds the view that government should provide funds to principals who monitors the teaching staff to help principal provide the teaching aids needed by their students at all time. It is on the strength of the above, that the researcher deems it necessary to research so as to highlight the role that teaching aids play in teaching and learning process and also study the problems that are associated with effective application of standardized teaching aids in teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary schools.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of standardized teaching aids on student’s attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the factors that influence student’s academic achievement in Biology.
2. To examine teaching aids and how it influences students academic achievement.
3. To examine the effects of standardized teaching aids on student’s academic achievement in Biology.
4. To examine the uses of teaching aids and how it influences the cognitive performance of the student.
5. To examine the relationship between standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in senior secondary schools.
6. To identify solutions to the problems that hinder student’s performance in biology subject in senior secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors that influence student’s academic achievement in Biology?
2. What are teaching aids and how does it influence student’s academic achievement?
3. What are the effects of standardized teaching aids on student’s academic achievement in Biology?
4. What are the uses of teaching aids and how does it influence the cognitive performance of the student?
5. What is the relationship between standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in senior secondary schools?
6. What are the solutions to the problems that hinder student’s performance in biology subject in senior secondary schools?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no effect of standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant effect of standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools.
H0: There is no significant relationship between standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant relationship between standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will have much significance on the following people. First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners when conducting a research on the impact of teaching aids on teaching. Again, the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of teaching aids to teaching provides basis for the falling standard of learning in the country. The study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents-teachers meeting, such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solutions. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations student’s teachers teaching aids. The findings of this study will guide the choice of teaching aids used in the teaching/learning process in biology and other subject areas. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of the scarcity of teaching aids for biology teaching/learning.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on effect of standardized teaching aids and students attitude on academic achievement in biology in senior secondary schools.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teaching Aids: Are those things which help teaching and learning process the help to promote understanding of concepts and generalization by making lessons practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of his students at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process effective and interesting to the students or are methods adopted by the teacher as the most efficient means of achieving his teaching objectives.
Academic: Relating to schools, colleges, and universities, or connected with studying and thinking, not with practical skills.
Achievement: A thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage.
Secondary school: Secondary school is the next step up from primary school. Secondary schools are often called high schools in the United States. Secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.
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