The study was aimed at investigating the effect of teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state. The survey research was used in this study to sample the opinion of respondents. This method involved random selection of respondent who were administered with questionnaires. The target population of the study comprised of teachers of selected secondary schools in Bungudu L. G. A, Zamfara state. The questionnaire administered was one hundred and ten (110) copies and one hundred copies retrieved which constitute the sample size. The descriptive and analytical approach was adopted using Chi-square to test and analyze the hypotheses earlier stated. The findings revealed that there is a significant effect of teaching and learning supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state and that teachers’ specialization is considered in teaching and learning process of supply and demand. It was therefore concluded from the findings that there are perceived factors militating against effective teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state. It was recommended that government should ensure that teachers are well trained and equipped and be competent enough to impact the knowledge to the students.
In the recent time, there are growing agitations and calls on developing countries to focus their attention on economics of supply and demand in order for them to turn around the economic status of their various Countries. It is against this background that the various Nigerian governments have been placing emphasis on the acquisition of economic education in the educational system. This issue led to the formulation of the new national policy on education. NPE(2016) which seems to place high emphasis on economics as a subject. Under the new policy economics is to be taught right from secondary school. The aim here is to inculcate into the secondary school student the basic necessity for the learning of economics at the higher levels of education. According to the national policy on education (NPE, 2016) the aim is to provide the students with “a sound basis for economical and reflective thinking” (FEM, 1981: 146). Economic education which involves supply and demand focuses on the scholarship of teaching and learning supply and demand as a subject. It encompasses the content to be taught (what-subject content knowledge), different teaching methods (how-pedagogical content knowledge), designing of applicable assessment practices (why-purpose of using assessment tools/strategies), and information of general interest to teachers of economics in primary, secondary to undergraduate studies. The purpose of economic of supply and demand is to create future responsible citizens, effective decision-makers and voters for change. Economic education is a very crucial subject that many of our nation’s schools tend to overlook (Van Wyk, 2012). The importance of economic education goes far beyond the goal of improving an understanding of the basic principles of supply and demand and the workings of the economy. Economics can be taught by generating new knowledge with the help of exposing students to real-life learning environments and experiences (van Wyk, 2014). The teaching of economics of supply and demand in our secondary schools is embedded with many obstacles in its implementation and these have contributed immensely to the fall in the standard of performance in public examination (Salako, 2002). The problems faced in the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 curriculum can be viewed on the contribution of individual, students, public and government to the teaching of economic for instance the response of some people to be assessed will be noted (NERC, 2010).
In essence, the secondary school is considered as the foundation upon which the future of economy in Nigeria is based. It is at this level that the student is introduced into the field of social science to explore it. Secondary school students are known to be curious and it is at this stage that curiosity can be tapped to advantage to develop the right economic attitudes in the students. In recent times also there have been complains by examiners teachers and even parents about poor student’s performance in economic more especially at the secondary level. There are also cries of student’s lack of interest in social sciences. This study intends to examine whether these trends are due to shaky foundations laid right from the secondary school. In other words are the secondary students given the adequate orientation to develop interest in economics?. The emphasis being laid on economics by successive Nigerian governments. Studies such as this could help in revealing the fundamental faults if any, associated with the teaching of economics, and the prospects for improvement. It is in recognition of the crucial role that secondary school plays in the development of economics that the study intends to look into the effect of teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schoolsin Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state.
The study will focus its attention on the challenges being encountered by both students and teachers in the teaching and learning of supply and demand at the secondary school. Specifically, the study will look into the issue of economics of supply and demandteaching materials to find out whenever or not there are enough materials for the effective teaching of economics of supply and demand in our secondary schools?. It is stipulated in the new national policy on education that economics of supply and demand teaching should make use of local materials. The study will look into the suitability of local materials for the teaching of economics. The emphasis on the educational system is that curricula should be community oriented. The study will examine how the student’s local background and immediate environment is employed in the teaching of secondary School Students. The study will consider the issue of medium of instruction for the teaching of economics in secondary schools. This study is interested in examining if there are any challenges of communication between the teachers and students in the teaching of supply and demand among others. Another area that the study will be interested in is manpower for the teaching of economics of supply and demand to determine if there are enough qualified teachers for the teaching of economics of supply and demand in secondary schools? Finally, the study will, on the basis of its findings, outline what prospects there are for the teaching and learning of economics of supply and demand in the secondary schools.
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study are:
1. To find out if there are qualified and well experienced teachers for effective supply and demand teaching in secondary schools.
2. To determine if there are adequate economics teaching materials in secondary schools.
3. To identify problems associated with communication between students and teachers while conducting supply and demand lessons.
4. To examine student’s commitment to the learning process of supply and demand in secondary schools
5. To examine the relationship between teaching, learning and students performance in supply and demand
6. To assess availability and application of teaching and learning material for learning supply and demand
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are there qualified and well experienced teachers for effective supply and demand teaching in secondary schools?
2. Are there adequate economics teaching materials in secondary schools?
3. What are the problems associated with communication between students and teachers while conducting supply and demand lessons?
4. How are the student’s commitments to the learning process of supply and demand in secondary schools?
5. What is the relationship between teaching, learning and students performance in supply and demand?
6. How is the availability and application of teaching and learning material for learning supply and demand?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant effect of teaching and learning supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state.
H1: There is a significant effect of teaching and learning supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
When completed it is hoped that the study will be of importance to educational policy makers and administrators in the ministries of education. It is also hoped that the findings of this study will highlight some issues deserving official consideration in the teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schools. The study will also prove to be of great importance to secondary school teachers of economics as it will expose some challenges connected to the teaching of economics and make suggestions for prospective improvement.
The introduction of such a subject will enable the students have a firm foundation for further education and training in the related professions. The learners will appreciate basic economic issues affecting them in their society and equally develop ability to acquire critical thinking and rational judgement on economic related issues. The acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitudes will he expected to dew clop individuals who appreciate the society.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is on the evaluation of the effect of teaching and learning of supply and demand in secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state. Therefore, the study will cover all secondary schools in Bungudu L.G.A, Zamfara state while the teacher and students of senior secondary schools studying economics will be involved in determining the effect of teaching and learning of supply and demand.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Secondary School: Secondary school is the next step up from primary school. Secondary schools are often called high schools in the United States. In Britain, secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.
Effect: This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in a person (s) or something by another person (s) or thing; that is the way in which an event, action or person changes someone or something.
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