BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The quality of Education is a major concern of all educational goals. Supervision of classroom instruction and continuous support to teachers are some of the most effective ways to improve and sustain the quality of instruction (Naz, Awan, & Nasreen, 2009). Teacher education is a critical factor in the achievement of Education for All (EFA). The Nigerian education system comprises of Pre-Primary, Primary, Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary, Teacher Instructor, Tertiary and University Levels. In addition, Non-Formal Education (NFE) is also another component of the education system in Nigeria, (Komakech, 2017; Ministry of Education and Sports, 2011). In Nigeria, the Education sector is regulated by the Ministry of Education. The ministry also formulates, issues, implements, monitors and supervises educational policies and guidelines in the country. However, despite the regulating, and monitoring quality of education in Nigeria, the performance of teachers graduating from institutions of higher learning is still poor (Okurut, et al, 2008). Okurut et al, (2008) observed that, the academic and professional training student teachers obtain from the training institutions such as colleges and universities may be sufficient to equip the graduates with necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge to be effective in their classrooms. The Inspectors of Schools and Education Officers are not adequately facilitated to carry out supervision and monitoring of teachers in the field. Moreover, students joining teacher education programs may not measure up with the training demands of the courses, (Okurut et al, 2008; Komakech, 2017). Supervision plays key role in quality assurance and service delivery of education offered in the educational institutions in Nigeria. According to Beach & Reinhartz (2011) supervision is a strategy in which professional support is provided to improve instruction. Therefore, supervision signifies a common vision of what teaching and learning can and should be (Glickman, Gordon & Ross-Gordon, 2014; Beach & Reinhartz (2011), hence it should be developed collaboratively by competent supervisors, teachers, and other members of the school community. Stephen (2014) defined supervision as a distinct professional activity in which education and training aimed at developing science-informed practice are facilitated through a collaborative interpersonal process. It involves observation, the facilitation of supervisee self-assessment, evaluation, feedback and the acquisition of knowledge, and skills by instruction, modelling and mutual problem solving. In addition, by building on the recognition of the strengths and talents of the supervisee, supervision encourages self efficacy. Akitunde (2007) noted that supervision is an act of overseeing activity/people or watches over a particular task being carried out correctly by other people. With reference to school system, supervision/inspection is defined as all efforts of designated school officials towards providing leadership to teachers, other educational workers and students in the improvement of instruction. Sergiovanni & Starratt, (2015) underlined the potential of supervision of instruction in improving classroom practices and providing teachers with opportunities for professional growth and improvement. Supervisors are critical in providing technical support to teachers. According to Sullivan & Glanz (2011) and Sergiovanni & Starratt (2015) supervision of instruction is a co-operative undertaking where supervisors and teachers participate in dialogue aimed at improving instruction and student learning. Supervisors therefore need to provide advice, encouragement, and support to teachers (UNESCO, 2007a). The process by which most student teachers are supervised and evaluated is inefficient, ineffective, and is poorly used (Marshall, 2011). Henry & Beasley (1982) in Thobega (2008) recognize the importance of supervision of student teachers during student teaching as this may be the only form of individualized instruction the student teachers may experience during their training. Thobega (2008) adds that this provides opportunity for the student teacher and supervisor to engage in one-on-one instruction. This is beneficial to both the student teachers and their supervisors as they learn from one another. There is public outcry about the high failure rates of their students in both internal and external examinations in Nigeria (Udebunu (2015). This has no doubt cast a vote of no confidence on the education sector. There are many factors that contribute to this status quo. Some of the factors may be linked to the teacher quality, their training and school practice supervision. Komakech (2017) noted very small difference between trained and untrained teachers in terms of preparation for teaching and classroom practice in Nigeria. He further observed that, whereas private schools employ more untrained teachers compared to public schools, their performance is far better than the public schools in Nigeria. Oyedeji, (2012) in (Udebunu, 2015) asserts that the standard of education and performance of student teachers can be improved if supervision of student teachers is properly done by university supervisors during training.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Performance of the student teachers graduating from colleges of Education has been declining over the years (Otaala, Maani & Bakaira, 2013). Recently it has been observed that many teachers in Nigeria, lack competencies to teach effectively and assess learners, including setting and marking tests. The report further noted that many teachers have inadequate content and lack ability to interpret concepts. Universities and teacher education institutions have a stake in and contribute to the current poor quality of teachers in our schools today that has engendered an outcry in the public. Despite the heavy investment in teacher training programs by universities and teacher education institutions, the quality of teacher graduates is still not what is expected (UNEB, 2015 in Komakech, 2015). While there are many factors that affect teacher performance, it is suspected that student training is one of the major ones. The question therefore is: how effective are the training and mentoring programs of the institutions of higher learning? Were the teachers properly supervised and mentored during their training? Findings of this study will inform policy makers in terms of resource mobilization.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine effective teaching practice supervision and students performance. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study shall be significant in a number of ways. In the first place, it is understood that investigation into this broad area of study will exposed so many things hitherto dominant facts and which previous researchers in this field has failed to investigated. This analysis will therefore help in the small way to a better understanding of effective teaching practice supervision and performance of the student teachers especially as it’s relate to teachers productivity. This study sought to establish the relationship between effective teaching practice supervision and student teachers’ performance in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. Supervisors rarely inform student teachers of their supervision schedules. They tend to take students unaware when they just bump into the schools to supervise them. Because student teachers are taken unaware, they may not be prepared. This affects their performance as they are more likely to panic on sight of the supervisor. Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and researchers a like as it will contribute to the existing literature in order to add to the body of knowledge in this field, and to the researchers, it will provide inputs into their studies and hence increase their knowledge.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on effective teaching practice supervision and students performance in Alvan Ikoku Federal college of Education.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Supervision: It refers to that dimension or phase of education administration which is between a sub-ordinate and super-ordinate and provides a common understanding between them.
Performance: It refers to how one carries out his/her roles, responsibilities in an institution or organization.
Students’ Performance: Knowledge and skills of students at the end of teaching-learning process, in particular, their achievements in the classroom.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS