1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Gender inequality in our society today, is among the most prevalent forms of social inequality which exists all over the world, with different effects in different regions. These differences are primarily due to cultural legacies, historical development, geographical location and religious norms which pre-dominate the society. Mistakes, disparity and inequality are the unequal treatment of people on the basis of characteristics that differentiate those. According to Quillian  factors such as stereotypes, prejudice and/or racism motivate a person to discriminate. Gender mistakes, disparity and inequality as the name suggests is the unfair treatment of women and denial of opportunities and violation of their rights. In the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Mistakes, disparity and inequality Against Women (CEDAW) gender mistakes, disparity and inequality was defined as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the eject or purpose of impairing of nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field”. Despite the numerous gender mistakes, disparity and inequality laws and court rulings, women are subjected to unequal treatment in all spheres of life all over the world. Even in advanced countries that claim to be champions of women’s rights gender mistakes, disparity and inequality and inequality is present in one form or the other especially in the field of economics. Women are not compensated fairly for their efforts and contributions at workplace and are often overlooked when it comes to promotions. The glass ceiling effect is more prevalent in developed countries as Baxter and Wright (2004) observed that obstacles for women’s promotion became intense at higher levels of authority. In the social sphere mistakes, disparity and inequality against women is rampant in almost every field. In many developing and under developed countries of the world, women are not considered worthy of education and better medical treatment. They have no rights over property and although they may be more capable then men, they are not allowed to use their potentials and talents. Women are generally treated as second class citizens and their needs are fulfilled only after the men have had their fill. In Muslim countries particularly women are asked to observe purdah (veil) and are not allowed to step outside the house without the permission of a male member. In some societies it is mandatory for females to be accompanied by the male members when going out of the house. According to Wadesango  gender mistakes, disparity and inequality and inequality in everyday experiences is common in the developing countries suppressed and unaware. Inequality between women and men has been clearly identified as one of the causes blocking development over the last two decades. In a developing economy like Nigeria it is often difficult to establish evidence based causal links between impacts of gender inequality on a country’s development because of the lack of available sex-disaggregated data. And because of limited data, we may not capture the complexity of gender inequality in different contexts. One way to measure gender inequality is to look at the differences for women and men in areas such as education, health, decision making and access to economic opportunities. Previous analysis based on quantitative data reveals that considerable progress has been made in terms of women’s access to education and healthcare in the region. The act of subjugating women is an inherent tradition, which has consistently been kept in an active state and coupled with its debilitating ability. As society has been grappling with the problem of creating a fair, just and equitable arrangement among different people, the mainstream agenda of development is challenged through; how to enhance the role of women in politics and governance. There is no human society where women are not discriminated or marginalized. Women are an entrenched, global pandemic. Udegbe (2004) specifically explained that male and female goes along with a number of stereo-type that virtually imposes both role performances, possibilities of different kinds. That is why Margaret (2010) confirms that women have been traditionally designated to occupations, which require such skills with cultural values. To Agbalajobi (2010) the key point that lead to discrimination against women has its roots in the nature of our societies which celebrate men as being unique, stronger and fit for the public space while women are feeble and weak meant to stay within the confluence of the private space. All these are consequences of cultural norms of the society which are embraced by the people of the world.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Nigeria indeed has tried to respond to the development from the international arena by articulating policies and programmes that seek to reduce gender inequalities in socio economic and political spheres, however, the success of bridging the gap between men and women is far-fetched. Politically, Nigeria women are negligible and undermined force, with little political involvement. Discrimination against women is becoming an important national and international human rights issue (Cook 2009). Women constitute almost half of the world’s population and better status of women is a fulcrum for total participation of women in both governance and development. In Nigeria, the sheer numerical size of women constitutes up to about 49.2 per cent according to 2006 population and housing census (NPC, 2009). For a sustainable development of a nation therefore, the women potentials must be optimally harnessed. While the pursuit of gender equity remains strongly embedded within the framework of fundamental human rights and gender justice, investments in women are now recognized as crucial to achieving sustainable development for transiting economies of Africa. These include deprivation of the women of quality education and decent training, poor healthcare, female circumcision, underage marriage, and limited access to productive resources and political power. Economically, they constitute the majority of the peasant labour force in the agricultural sector, while most of the others occupy bottom of occupational ladder and continue to be channelled into service and domestic occupations. The consequence of the unequal status between men and women is high level of economics and political powerlessness among women, powerlessness in turn retard development of any level, politically, economically and socially.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate gender mistakes, disparity and inequality. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no effect of gender mistake, disparity and inequality on national development in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant effect of gender mistake, disparity and inequality on national development in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The paper, is very important in many ways, it will help the Nigerian government to identify and understand that women under representation is a serious problem affecting our nation in third world. Hence, such knowledge will help in making feature decisions. The study would serve as a reference point to scholars in research and in similar area, so also to policy and decision makers in both private and public sectors. This paper will also help in motivating women to participate in any government functions of their choice. It would be useful to schools and women organizations. The result or outcome of the research will be useful to other researchers, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations in the world, and to students writing or conducting research on similar topic. It will also help in bridging the gap or encouraging women to participate in national development. It will also expose the effect of women under-representation in government activities, at both individual and societal level.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to gender mistakes, disparity and inequality: case study of Kano Metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Gender: This refers to social roles allocated respectively to men and women in particular societies and at particular times. Such roles and the differences between them are conditioned by a variety of political, economic, ideological and cultural factors, and are characterized in most societies by unequal power relations. Gender constitutes one of the determinants of how poverty is experienced and of wealth creation. Rights and entitlements of men and women to opportunities, resources and decision making are based on socio-cultural norms rather than on human rights or the respective development capability of men and women.
Gender Inequality: Is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal. Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. It arises from differences in gender roles.
Gender Mistake: A gender mistake is a specific type of a more general phenomenon referred to as a status mistake. Gender mistakes can occur in a variety of situations, such as when reading an email or resume from someone with a gender- neutral name, or when interacting with an “effeminate” looking man or a “masculine” looking woman.
Gender Disparity: The differences in women’s and men’s access to resources, status and well-being, which usually favour men and are often institutionalised through law, justice and social norms.
Gender equality: This refers to a situation where women and men have equal conditions for realising their full human rights and potentials; are able to contribute equally to national, political, economic, social and cultural development and benefit equally from the results. Furthermore, it entails that the underlying causes of discrimination are systematically identified and removed in order to give men and women equal opportunities. Equality is therefore understood to include both formal equality and substantive equality, and not merely simple equality to men.
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