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Project Topic:

IMPACT OF CIVIC EDUCATION ON GOOD GOVERNANCE TOWARD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 63 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   31 people found this useful

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EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Civic Education is concerned with the development of values, social norms, skill and democratic ideals in the citizens.  According  to  Utulu  (2011),  Civic Education  becomes  very  relevant  since  it  essentially seeks  to  introduce  learners  to  the  process  of democratic  socialization  by  promoting  support  for democratic  behaviours  and  values  among  citizens. Mezieobi, cited by Okan and Lawal (2011) sees civic education as the educative means in a sovereign state whereby  the  citizens  or  individuals  become  socially and  politically  aware,  socially  integrated  into  the social  milieu,  acquire  social  skills  and  competence, become  socially  responsible  for  maximum productivity  and  development,  all  in  the  interest  of the state. Starkey  (1992)  describes  Civic  Education  as  a programme that helps children to know that they have rights but also duties. It enables the learners to develop a sense of  good respect for  the law and affection  for the  Republic.  Civic  Education  implies  an understanding  of  the  rules  of  democratic  life  and  its fundamental principles. Civic Education teaches  about the  political  system;  it  emphasizes  the  rights,  roles and duties of every member of the society. The goal of Civic Education is the development of responsible citizenship.  It  aims  at  equipping  the  learners  with  the political, culture, democratic ideals and values that will enable  them  to  function  as  effective  and  productive citizens.

Civic  education  remains  an  important  means  of  teaching  the  populace  about  individual  rights  and  what  duties and responsibilities the governed and leaders should do. The introduction of Civic Education as a subject to be taught  in  primary  and  secondary  schools  in  Nigeria  is  expected  to  further  deepen  democratic  culture  and encourage qualitative participation of the average Nigerian in the governance process. The Civic Education curriculum according to Yahya (2013) addresses young Nigerians in the formative educational years. The contents address issues that are important to developing young Nigerian people into responsible citizens.  In other words, the curriculum enables our young  people  imbibe the values,  norms, knowledge, actions and activities for sustaining development. While sustainable development  is  development  that  meets  the  needs  of  the  present  without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Good governance Sustainable development could also be construed as a global responsibility and solidarity between generations, between women and men and between different cultures and countries.  It  is  about  safeguarding  and  efficient  use  of  existing  natural  resources. Investment  in  management  of  human,  social  and  physiological  resources  is  also  crucial  parts  of  sustainable development. 

However,  civic  education  is  said  to  be  a  veritable tool  for  promoting  sustainable  development  and improving  the  capacity  of  the  people  to  address  environment  and  development  issues.  Civic education  is concerned  with  three  different  elements:  civic  knowledge,  civic  skills  and  civic  disposition.  Civic  knowledge refers to citizens’ understanding of the workings of the political system and of their own political and civic rights and  responsibilities  (e.g.  the  rights  to  freedom  of  expression  and  to  vote  and  run  for  public  office,  and  the responsibilities  to  respect  the  rule  of  law  and  the  rights  and  interests  of  others).  Civic  skills  refer  to  citizens’ ability to analyze, evaluate, take and defend positions on public issues, and to use their knowledge to participate in  civic  and  political  processes  (e.g.  to  monitor  government  performance,  or  mobilize  other  citizens  around particular issues). Civic dispositions are defined as the citizen traits necessary for a democracy (e.g. tolerance, public  spiritedness,  civility,  critical  mindedness and  willingness  to  listen,  negotiate,  and  compromise). 

For Azebanwan  (2010)  elements  of  civic  education  are  real  because  they  actually  affect  peoples’  lives.  They  are topical, current today and relevant. The issues are moral, because they relate to making responsible citizen. Responsible citizenship is the hallmark of every promising society. Indeed this is a basic requirement for  sustainable  national  development  and  nationhood.  It  is  on  the  strength  of  this  that  Obama  (2009)  in  his address to American’s school children declared thus:

“We  will  need  the  insights  and  critical  -  thinking skills  you  gain  in  history  and Social  Studies  to  fight  poverty  and  homelessness,  crime  and  discrimination,  and make our nation fairer and freer. You need the creativity and ingenuity you develop in all  your classes to build new companies that  will create new jobs and boast our economy.” This  speech  is  established  on  the  assumption  that  every  citizen  has  got  one  way  or  the  other  to contribute to national development. That is why for every society, there must be a clearly articulated framework for  responsible  citizenship  and  national  development.  For  Nigeria,  this,  no  doubt  has  been  laid  down  in  the National Policy on Education of 2004.

The real problem facing humanity today in terms of achieving sustainable development is how  to  motivate  people  to  change  underlying  behaviours  and  activities  that are  problematic  in this  case unsustainability. Human  beings  are  very  resentful  to  change.  In other  words,  people should be encouraged to channel their energy towards contributing more to help alleviate poverty by  acquiring  relevant  education  and  skills  in  order  to  promote  developmental  efforts  that  do  not pollute good ideas and wasting scarce resources to destroy lives and edifices built over the years. Here  is  where  the  idea  of  education  for  sustainable  development  has  a  special  role  in vindicating  how  various  processes  in  education,  which  lie  at  the  heart  of  promoting  change  in human behaviour, can be used on a global level to help turn things around (Baha, 2005). 

Kundan in (Ugoh, 2008) describes sustainable development as a construct, which envision development as meeting the need of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future  generation.  It  implies  that  while  education  meets  the  need  of  the  present  it  does  not compromise  the  ability  of  the  future  generations to  meet  own  needs.  Nevertheless,  this  ability  to meet  the  needs  is  determined  by  human  capital  (through  education,  technology  advance)  and through  physical  capital  (machine,  tool  etc).  Kundan  argues  that  continued  sustainable development is only possible or assured when it is agreed and indeed concrete steps are taken to raise  the  level  of  literacy  and  numeracy  in  any  society.  Educational institutions  and  their programmes are therefore, the tools with which to achieve development and its sustainability.

Sustainable development has also been defined by the Nigeria Study/Action Team (NEST, 1991) in Osuji (2004) as “an approach that combines the development needs and aspirations of  the  present  without  compromising  the  ability  of  the  future  while  also  maintaining  ecological integrity”. This implies according to Osuji a development process that is equitable and sensitive to ecological and environmental issues. It depends on the initiative, resourcefulness, and discipline of human beings who are the managers of developmental programmes.

Education  for  sustainable  development  is  lifelong  process  that  leads  to  an  informed  and involved  citizenry  having  the  creative  problem-solving  skills,  scientific  and  social  literacy,  and commitment to engage in responsible individual and co-operative actions. UK Panel for education for  Sustainable  Development  (1998),  states  that  education  for  sustainable  development  enables people to develop the knowledge, values, and skills to participate in decisions about the ways we do things, individually and collectively, locally and globally, that will improve the quality of life now without damaging the planet of the future.

Education for sustainable development is a holistic approach for school‟s management and the curriculum, not a separate subject. It therefore requires reflection on what to teach, and how to teach in order to clarify and extend the ability of students to think for themselves encourage students to reflect and debate issues to enable them to form their own opinions foster learning that emerges from discovery and is relevant to the learners life experiences

1.2 Problem of the Study

With the various anti-social activities which tend to raise questions about the survival of national co-existence, the members of the different regimes in Nigeria embarked on different orientation programmes. One of such programme was in the area of educational policy, as a way to encourage the young people to participate in the actualization of national objectives. Although one can find some evidence of the effects of these policies and programs (Dike, 2005; Jekayinfa, Mofoluwawo, & Oladiran, 2011; Omotola, 2006; Osoba, 1996), there is little evidence of the effectiveness of secondary school civic education. This lack of data is compounded by the absence of a clear assessment schedule and program beyond the indicated bureaucratic intention to do so as well as a clear definition of the behavioral outcomes characteristic of adherence to national objectives. Thereby, it is difficult for researchers to know what to measure in order to determine success or failure.

Education is the major instrument for civilization and every nation aspiring to be civilized must invest in its educational sector. The neglect of  civic  education at  the  Secondary  school  level  may  have  effect  on the behaviour  of  the  secondary  school  students.  It  is  therefore,  not  surprising,  today  to  see  some  secondary school students engaging in indiscipline, antisocial behaviour, examination malpractice and violence. In line with this, the  re-introduction  of  civic in the new curriculum  of  secondary  education  may  encourage  morals and  national  ethics. 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.     To examine the relationship between the study of civic education and good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state.

2.     To access the perception of male and female students on civic education and good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state.

3.     To examine the relationship between the study of civic education and  sense of national consciousness in secondary school students in Ogun state.

4.     To recommends ways to improve good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state via civic education.

1.4 Research Question

1.     Is there a significant relationship between the study of civic education and good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state

2.     Is there a significant difference between the perception of male and female students civic education and  good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state.

3.     Has the study of civic education improved the sense of national consciousness in secondary school students in Ogun state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.     There is no significant relationship between the study of civic education and good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state.

2.     There is no significant difference between the perception of male and female students on civic education and good governance for sustainable development in Ogun state.

3.     There is no significant relationship between the study of civic education and sense of national consciousness among secondary school students in Ogun State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is expected to have effect on secondary school students from Ijebu North Local Government, Homes, and the general public. The outcome of this study is to supplement the existing store of knowledge on the subject of impact of civic education and it adverse effect and also serves as a channel for further research on innovative ways of help youth improve themselves.

The result of this study may be of immense benefits to the public and private individuals, government, parents, religious leaders, school counselors, students, lecturers, school management and researchers.

The findings of the study may be of great help to the public and private individual as it will expose the ugly and negative effect of bad governance on the development of the country. The study may help the researcher to understand the positive effect of civic education on good governance towards sustainable development. It may motivate them to study and carry out research on other aspect of good governance there by creating strong awareness of the positive effect of civic education on good governance towards sustainable development.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study shall be delimited to secondary school Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun state.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Civic Education: A classroom subject introduced into the Nigerian school curriculum as part of the basic education program for the purposes of “developing young Nigerian people into responsible citizens”.

Student: A person who learns or acquires particular knowledge from school and every other educational setup.

Good Governance: The act of leading a particular group/country/community in a right way.

Sustainable development:

Impact: The degree at which a particular thing affect a situation

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