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Project Topic:

IMPACT ON MONTHLY ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION ON THE AESTHETIC VALUE OF THE ENVIRONMENT

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 63 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   33 people found this useful

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EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Environmental sanitation should be greatly improved while embarking on health education programmes as a component of all water and sanitation programmes, improving sector institutional capacity, and ensuring sustainable predictable and adequate financing to the sector. Ensuring efficient management of water resources also requires pursuing trans-boundary water resources strategies and co-operation in the sub-region vis-a-vis enhanced legislation developed and implemented for efficient water resources management. (Carlo, 1998) Furthermore, climate change adaptation should be factored into water resource management mechanisms and measures to support encourage and promote rainwater harvesting.

With respect to the provision of safe water in rural and urban areas, there is the need to provide investments for the construction of new and rehabilitation and expansion of existing water facilities and also strengthen public-private and NGO partnerships in water provision as well as improve community-owned and managed water supply systems. Other strategic include facilitating the extension of distribution networks, especially to law income consumers, intensifying hygiene education in water service delivery and encouraging public-private partnerships in water services delivery. (Cipolia, 1998) Strategies aimed at improving environmental sanitation should include promoting the construction and use of appropriate and affordable domestic latrines, integrating hygiene education into water and sanitation delivery, supporting public-private-partnerships in solid and .quid waste management, promoting cost-effective and innovative technologies for waste management and also developing disability-friendly sanitation facilities. (Burnett, 2000)

In realizing the objective of implementing health education as a component of all water and sanitation programmes, the major strategy That should be employed is the incorporation of hygiene education in all water and sanitation programmes.

An equally important strategy will be the promotion of change behaviour in relation to ensuring open defecation-free communities. Other strategies should include the promotion of hand washing with soap at critical times, promoting hygienic use of water at the household level and !x* promotion of hygienic excreta disposal methods, (Georgej 2002} The policy objective to improve sector coordination would be achieved through the adoption of a sector-wide approach to planning, .mplemcntation, monitoring and evaluation of sector activities. The Water Directorate and the Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Directorate should be strengthened with adequately trained number of personnel and other resources to enable them take ownership and lead roles in the sector, (George, 2002)

Sector agencies and community management structures should be given the needed capacity to enable them to manage water resources and environmental sanitation facilities better at the various levels of the communities. To ensure a sustainable, predictable and adequate financing, economic water charges should be maintained. A Sanitation and Water for All (SWA] compact project should be implemented and timely releases of approved recurrent budget to the sector should be pursued. Other non-traditional sources of funding should also be identified and pursued white capacity building should be provided as a continuous process, (William, 2002)

Degradation of natural resources and the environment on a global scale primarily    a    result    of   unsustainable    development   models,    the production and consumption patterns of the industrialized First World, and the population growth of the Third World. The processes of Colonization and imperialism over the past 500 years have resulted in a state of affairs whereby the now-industrialized countries have accumulated wealth, essentially through the exploitation of cheap labor and practically free natural resources. One of many possible examples is the recent exploitation of bananas, cotton, and cattle for export in Central America, The consequences of environmental degradation and ecosystem disruption arc nearly irreversible in some- cases. Fifty percent of the Central American population will be living in poverty by the end of the present century. (Robinson, 2002)

Inadequate environmental management, including water resource management, is a result of economic, cultural, and technological factors. The efforts of national and international organizations to preserve the protected areas of PetEn (the region where the case study site is located) have done little to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants to date. However, a development plan recently put into effect in Per En by the Secretary General of Development and Planning (SEGEPLAN), with support from the US Agency for International Development, offers hope of reversing the marginalization of agriculture by implementing a sustainable development process in the region. (WHO, 2002|

Population growth in the region is more than five percent annually, principally due to migrations from the rest of the country. In purely numerical terms, there is a sufficient amount of rainfall to support the human population (more than 1,200 millimeters (mm) per year], yet the supply of rainwater is inadequate in terms of quality and quantity for reasons related to harvesting methods and economics.

In the vast, highly porous Karst region the bodies of water have suffered a series of biological accidents, limiting the desired level of availability of water, The agricultural soil limitations characteristic of the region can be attributed to these factors. (WHO, 2002)

Increased access to potable water, improved environmental sanitation and hygiene education are critical components of ensuring a good slate of health of a people.

A healthy population facilitates sustained poverty reduction and socio-economic growth. Access to potable water has been found to contribute to improved health status. It saves time for other productive activities, especially among women, and also enhances school attendance. Improved environmental sanitation contributes significantly To the reduction and prevention of water and sanitation-related problems such as malaria, typhoid and dysentery. The implementation of appropriate health and hygiene promotion activities in the communities lead to reduction in communicable diseases. (Robinson, 2002]

Critical sector policies have focused mainly on the management of water resources, accelerating the provision of safe water and improved environmental sanitation facilities as well as hygiene education. Although several investments in potable water and environmental sanitation provisions have been implemented under various strategies in Ghana, most rivers which serve as sources of potable water supply are drying up.

Most households in both urban and rural areas continue to rely on natural sources of water (unprotected wells, lakes and rivers). Women and girls in rural areas spend a lot of time and effort to access and provide water for their households. (Carlo, 1998)

The key issues confronting the sector include weak water resources management, inadequate access tu quality and affordable water, inadequate access to environmental sanitation facilities, poor hygiene practices and inadequate funding.

Addressing the above issues and challenges require that policy objectives should be pursued within the medium-term by ensuring efficient management of water resources, accelerating the provision of potable and affordable water.

1.1        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of this research work is to investigate the impact on monthly environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment in Ijebu Ode. Lack of adequate sanitary facilities and poor hygienic practices are common throughout the developing countries; the lowest levels of service coverage are to be found in Asia and Africa where more than half of the rural populations are excluded from any measurable progress in this area. Globally, 2.4 billion people, most of them in developing countries, do not have access to improved sanitation facilities. Data collected over ten years show that little progress has been made in reducing this number.

In general environmental sanitation covers arrangements for drainage of rainwater and effluents, collection and disposal of garbage and removal of human excreta. The World Health organization (WHO) defines environmental sanitation as "the control of all those factors in man's physical environment, which exercise or may exercise a deleterious effect on his physical development, health and survival." The Millennium Development Goals [MDO] is also insuring the environmental ,sustainability. Important indicators of the Millennium Development Goals are to reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and to achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020.

1.2       JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The   word   environment   commands   a   very   broad   meaning.      It includes:   air,   land   and   water;   plant  and   animal  life   including human    life;    the    social,    economic,    recreational,    cultural   and aesthetic conditions and factors that influence the lives of human beings and their communities; buildings, structures, machines or other devices made by man; any solids, liquids, gases, odour, heat, sound, vibration or radiation resulting directly or indirectly from the activities of man; and any part or combination of the foregoing and the inter-relationships between two or more of them. There is a clear cause-and-effect relationship between poverty and environmental degradation- Environmental degradation   leads  to widespread   poverty;   equally,   poverty   is   an   habitual   cause   of environmental degradation  as it undermines people's capacity to manage resources wisely.    Problems of underdevelopment such as poverty,    ill    health    and    others    that    plague    the    majority    of Tanzanians are as much environmental as they are developmental. Environmental   protection   is   therefore   a   social   and   economic necessity.   It is an integral component of sustainable development. Correspondingly,   sustainable   development   must   be   the   central concept in environmental policy

1.3        BROAD OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this research work is to examine the impact on monthly environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment in Ijebu Ode

1.4        SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

•   To identify the monuments available in Ijebu-ode,

•   To determine the maintenance level of the infrastructures present in Ijebu-ode,

•    To assess the sanitation culture of the public and other agencies on the infrastructures

1.5    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

*      Could   availability   of   monument   have   impact on the monthly environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State?

*      Would maintenance level of infrastructure have impact on the monthly   environmental    sanitation    on    the    aesthetic    value    of    the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State?

*      Could  sanitation  culture  of the public  and other agencies have impact on the monthly   environmental  sanitation on ihe aesthetic value of the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State?

1.6    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

*    That   availability   of monument  will   significantly  have   impact on the monthly   environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State.

*    That maintenance level of infrastructure will significantly have  impact on the monthly   environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State.  

*    That sanitation culture of the public and other agencies will significantly have impact on have impact on the monthly environmental sanitation on the aesthetic value of the environment, using Ijebu Ode Metropolis, Ogun State.

1.7    DELIMITATION/SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is delimited to Ijebu ode metropolis, Area of Ogun State, This study will be descriptive study and it will also make use of validated questionnaire which will be approved by supervisor before final distribution.

More so, some areas under Ijebu ode metropolis will also be make use of luring the process of the research work.

1.8     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There are practical and theoretical significance for conducting this study. The fruitful outcome of this research work will go along way in enhancing the extension of recommendations that can be employed by health personnel (Environmental health officer). The study might also generate new implementation strategies for further capabilities. It is also assumed that this study will attract the interest of policy makers, ministries of Health and Education and would go along way in helping researchers in the fields of health.

 1.9      OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Environmental  Sanitation: Is    a  set  of actions  geared   towards improving the quality of the environment and reducing the amount of diseases.

Environment: its refers to the physical and biological factors along with their chemical.

Aesthetic: Is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty and taste with the creation and appreciation.

Aesthetic    Environment:    is    a    relatively    new    sub-field    of physiological aesthetics

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