The school is a social institution entrusted with the formal education of the youth in the society. Sporting activities have been known to be an integral component of the educational programs of the most, if not all nations of the world.
In Plato’s Republic, physical education was included as an integral component of the educational system. It is therefore the function of the school to socialize the individuals. Here in Nigeria, physical education programs are not much emphasized at all levels of the educational system, in fact, the recognition of physical education as a part of the secondary school curriculum by the national policy on education in 1982 formally and wholly integrated physical education into the educational program of the country (Ojeme, 2003; Orunaboka, 2005).
In most advanced countries of the world; education authorities have realized the benefits accruing from participation in sports programs and they have not hesitated in including physical education in their curriculum as a part of the learning experiences offered to the students. The implication is that a lot of resources (finance) were put into physical education to enable the youths enjoy a worthy sports programme for their healthy development. Sports activities have been seen as an instrument for national unity.
This role has been epitomized by the biannually organized “All Nigeria Sports Festival and Nigeria Schools Sports Festival”, which aimed at bringing people from various states and schools in Nigeria together through a healthy competition. There is a clear indication that the authorities responsible for administration of sports in Nigeria have realized the contributions of the school physical education programs towards sports development in Nigeria and are sparing no effort to encourage secondary schools to set up well structured physical education and sports programs. This implies that Nigeria secondary schools are now looked upon as one of the fertile grounds for breeding the Nation’s future sportsmen and women. In order to achieve this objective, the government through the ministry of Youths and Sports provided standard facilities, supplies and equipment to all the secondary schools through their state government, but the problems of facilities, and equipment management in the secondary schools in Nigeria, are the issue of concern by many sports researchers, sports managers and practitioners, as an area that merits investigation.
The value of sports on behavior is quite overwhelming. It is in this context that the accrued benefits may be adequately harnessed. Over the years, sport has been monolithic in nature and practice. The Coubertin era with its promotion of one dimensional competitive culture gave credence to this approach. Against this narrow perception, Harvey, (2002) has argued that the roles of sports are potentially many given its highly symbolic, metaphoric nature. Consequently, in this regard, Constant as cited in Harvey (2002), identified three dimensions in which sports can make contributions. These are social cohesion, citizenship and moral qualities dimensions. However, this can only be made possible when it is perceived as shared common values in which everybody has a stake in the challenges and belong to the same culture.
Today’s society is growing technologically, hence sports and physical education can be utilized as tools to affect functional effectiveness in this technological era. In this regard it becomes imperative for experts in physical education and sports to research and identify issues and problems peculiar to their locality as well as to a wider global context so as to ascertain how these could lead to the development of physical education and sports. There is no doubt that utilization of such information technology to drive a technologically sophisticated society will enhance better humanity. Notably, sport and physical activities are closely related with man’s existence, history, culture, economy and politics (Park, 2003). The question therefore is to what extent has this been fully exploited? Much may not be said of the primitive days of man, but with the advent of civilization, the expectation is that much may have been achieved. This also stem‘s from the conception that physical activity play a significant role in attaining the desired social construction.
This may also be one reason why physical education and sports was introduced into the school curriculum. There is the tendency that sport ensures wholesome development of the students. Against this background, policies in education and sports were formulated to ensure that the needed potentials are adequately harnessed. The extent, to which these issues are realized, will be explored in this paper along with the factors that is inhibiting against sport development in Ogun State.
Statement of the Problem
The importance of Sports cannot be overemphasized, in fact scientists attests to the fact that physical education which is part of Sports is essential for healthy living. Thus, it is pertinent to make provision for sporting facilities, Sports equipment and curriculum in schools in order to make physical health education not an opportunity but a right for all. However, it has been discovered that sport in Ogun State secondary schools today has failed to meet up with the required standard. This indeed has affected the standard of Sports in the State. Moreover, this research work will look into how lack of necessary facilities, lack of proper maintenance of equipment and inadequate finance/ funding as factors that might have affect on Sports development and performance in Ogun State.
This study is set out give answers to the following research questions:
1. What is the effect of inadequate sports equipment on the development of sports among secondary school students in Ogun State?
2. How does the school curriculum help in the development of sports in Ogun State secondary schools?
3. Does lack of proper management of sports equipment work against students’ performance in sports among secondary school students in Ogun State?
In line with the above question stated, the following hypotheses are to be tested:
1. There is no significant relationship between availability/adequate sports equipment and sport development.
2. There is no significant difference between school curriculum and sports development.
3. There is no significant relationship between sports performance and management of sports equipment.
Significance of the Study
No doubt, Sports has been part of man from the history of man till date and has reserved it uniqueness right from then till date. This indeed has actually called for the provision of sports equipment in all secondary schools.
However, this research project will provide the government with the factors that are inhibiting against sports development and performance in Ogun State secondary schools along with the possible solutions to problems.
It will also provide the school administration and the public with the necessary suggestions on how to maintain the available sporting equipment and facilities as well as what should be the students’ attitude toward the maintenance of this facilities.
Delimitation of the Study
The study will focus on the inhibiting factors in sports performance and development among the secondary school students in Ogun State. Therefore, this study is delimited to ten secondary schools in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. The ten secondary schools are:
i. 1. Abusi Odumare Academy,Ijebu Igbo
ii. Molusi College, Ijebu Igbo
iii. Itamerin Comprehensive High School Oru-Ijebu
iv. Ago Secondary School, Ago Iwoye
v. Fowoseje Secondary School, Ago Iwoye
vi. Muslim High School, Ago Iwoye
vii. Beje Secondary School, Ijebu-Igbo
viii. Obanta Secondary School, Mamu- Awa
ix. Japara Secondary School, Ijebu-Igbo.
x. Methodist Secondary School, Ago-Iwoye.
Limitation of the Study
The limitations that the researcher may experience in the quest of finding the truth in this study are as follows:
i. The responses that would be provided by the people to some of the questionnaires formed may be incompletely filled or inaccurate. Effort would be made by the researcher in persuading respondents to fill the questionnaire appropriately. Other limitations in the course of this study would be adequately taken care of by the researcher.
ii. Study will be restricted to the secondary school.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms will be used in the course of this study:
Curriculum: This refers to the set of coursework on sport and their content, offered at school and the provision of these on the time table.
Development: This refers to the level of growth and direct positive change in school sporting activities.
Facilities: These are the equipment put in place to facilitate or make sport activities possible in secondary schools.
Management: This is the judicious use of sporting equipments in secondary schools.
Performance: This means the achievement or accomplishment of students in sporting activities.
Sports: This refers to any athletic activities that that uses physical skill, often competitive in nature.
Sports equipment: These are materials that are used in athletics activities or in sporting competition.
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