1.1 Background of the Study
The prevalence of toilet diseases among female is becoming alarming, hence, urgent actions are needed to be taken. Toilet disease is the inflammation of infection of the vulva and vagina. Toilet disease or vulvouagenitis can affect women of all ages and it is extremely common and dangerous.
According to a recent poll conducted by George-Pacific corp, Atlanta, nearly 30 percent (30%) of Americans avoid public toilets out of fear of germs and infections. There are some organisms that could be acquired by contact with toilet seats such as, salmonella bacteria, public lice, E-coli and other urinary tract infections. Toilet disease can be caused by bacteria, yeast, viruses and other parasites.
Some sexually transmitted infections (STIS) can also cause vulvovaginitis, as can various chemicals found in bubble baths, soaps, and perfumes, detergents, deodorants or contraceptive creams. In rare cases, vulvovaginitis may be the result of cancerous changes in the cell that line with the surface of the vulva or the vagina. In children, the cause of the disorder is offer unclear. In some cases, a foreign body in the vagina or sexual abuse may be the cause. In general, vaginitis may cause itching, irritation or abnormal vaginal discharge.
Disease according to Wikipedia of the free encyclopedia is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often constructed to be a medial condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. Disease can also be seen as an illness or order caused by infections or unnatural growth. It may also be caused by factors originally from an external source as infectious disease or it may be caused by internal dysfunction such auto immune diseases.
In human, disease is often more broadly referred to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems and/or death to the person afflicted or similar problems for those in contact with the person. Disease usually affects people not only physically but also emotionally, as contacting and living with many diseases can alter one’s perspective on life and their personality. Diseases can be classified as communicable and non-communicable diseases.
Communicable disease is an health issue that needs to be seriously tackled. Commonly, this term is used to refer specifically to the infectious diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms and aberrant proteins known as prions. Communicable disease can be contacted by contact of body with an infected person, through air, sharing of contaminated materials or through transfusion of blood. Some diseases that are communicable include toilet diseases, tuberculosis, chicken pox, small pox, measles, whopping cough, STDs such as HIV and AIDS.
Non-communicable or non-infectious diseases are disease that cannot be contaminated through contract, blood transfusion or air. They include most forms of cancer, heart diseases and genetic diseases.
Diseases are of four main types: pathogenic diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases and physiological diseases. Pathogenic diseases occur as a result of the presence of pathogens which are abnormal to living organisms. Deficiency diseases are caused as a result of lack of certain elements in the body, thereby causing an abnormality in the body system. Hereditary diseases are caused as a result of traits or genetic mutation. Physiological diseases can be caused as a result of physiological factors or disorder.
Toilet is a sanitation fixture used primarily for the disposal of human excrement, often found in a small room. The toilet is a great invention except for those of us who have to clean it. Pathogens originating from the toilet bowls are a cause for concern, and if some are catapulted into the air when flushed, then it behooves us to clean surfaces and disinfect tooth brushes. Excretion do contain natural flora that are useful in the environment, but unless you have a good plan for removing and treating it, your toilet bowl will be a contributor to the concentration of bacteria in the bathroom. Toilet types include dry toilets, chemical toilets and flush toilets.
There are several different kinds of vaginitis or toilet diseases, each with their own causes and symptoms yeast infections of Candida, Bacteria Vaginitis, Trichomoniasis. Yeast infections of the vulva are probably the most farmiliar forms of vaginitis. They occur when too much of the fungus candida grows in the vagina. They occur when too yeast infection produce a thick, white discharge from the vagina that can look like cottage cheese. The discharge can be watery and often has no smell yeast infection usually cause the vulva and the vagina to become itchy and red.
Bacteria vaginosis is the most common vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. It is caused by an over growth of bacteria that are usually present in the vagina. Bacteria vaginosis will often cause a thin milky vaginal discharge that may have a “fishy” odour. Many women with bacteria vaginosis have no symptoms and only discover they have it during a routine gynecologic examination.
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by a single cell parasite. It can cause vaginal itching, burning and soreness of the vagina and vulva, as well as burning during urination. Many women with trichomoniasis do not develop symptom.
Damages that toilet diseases have caused to its victims include infertility, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among others.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The spread of toilet disease among female students in the hostel us a serious problem which demands an urgent, effecting/lasting solution. Lack of awareness of the causes, effects and symptoms of the toilet disease on the part of the female students bring about recurrence of the disease and this pose a great threat to their health.
In some hostels, e.g. Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta, girls hostels sanitary conditions cannot always be ideal because of the individuals involved and because of financial problem encountered in various places. Therefore, there is need for an orientation on the ideals of personal hygiene on both the individual and generally of people.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This research aimed at:
(i) Examining the causes and effects of toilet disease on female students.
(ii) Enabling the female students to be conscious/aware of the prevalence of toilet diseases.
(iii) Finding solutions to problems discovered from these purpose.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions will help the research as well as the researcher in carrying out her investigations.
(i) Does toilet disease affect other parts of the body apart from the urinogenital tract?
(ii) Can the sharing of public toilet leads to toilet disease?
(iii) Is vagina itching a sign of toilet disease?
(iv) Can toilet disease leads to infertility in females?
(v) Is toilet disease communicable?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research will help to contribute to the existing bank of knowledge about the prevalence, causes, symptoms and effect of toilet diseases of female students and the public in general as well as helping to find a solution to victims of toilet diseases.
The study will further reveal the different types of toilet diseases existing as well as the organisms or pathogen from which they originate.
In addition, females will be made to realize the need to be very careful when using public toilets
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to the female students in the hostels of Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta while samples will be drawn from 100 level, 200 level and 300 level female students.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This study due to financial and time factor is limited to female hostels in Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta. The hostels include Hall 1, Hall 2, and Hall 4.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Patterns: In this context, patterns are those ways by which toilet diseases are been contacted. The ways by which toilet diseases can be contacted include the use of infected toilets, through sexual intercourse, using of infected materials such as wearing the panties of an infected person.
Prevalence: The prevalence of toilet disease among females points is the rate of wide spread of the infection among females. Toilet diseases are very common disease among females which occurs at a point during their life time. These diseases are sometimes caused by poor personal hygiene and they can not be easily cured. If toilets diseases are not properly treated on time, it tend to have series of effects in the body system of the females.
Effects: The effects of toilets diseases in females are those results that are gotten from these infections. Toilet diseases cause a lot of damages if not properly treated. Some of the effect of toilet disease in females include: vaginal discharge, itching, vaginal irritation; painful urination, painful intercourse, infertility, intra-amniotic infections.
Symptoms: Symptoms are those changes that occurs in the body which shows that one is not healthy. In this context, the symptoms of toilet diseases are those signs that one feels or that appears most especially in the genital areas to shows that one is infected with toilet diseases. The symptoms of toilet disease include vaginal itching, vaginal odour, painful urination, etc.
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