1.1 Background to the Study
The issue of unwanted pregnancy which is a product of premarital sex is a serious concern for those in the field of health promotional education because it leads to several physiological and sociological health issue that should be abated, through health education strategies. Imagine for a moment, a world without premarital sex, there would be less sexually transmitted disease (STDs), there would be no unwed mothers, and there would be less unwanted pregnancies and abortion. The above rightly capture the concern which premarital sex has generated among policy makers, researchers and even religious leaders. The rise in premarital sex in Africa has resulted from a sexual revolution that came with western culture (Scott, 2006). Sex in Nigeria before now was regarded as sacred and limited only to adult males and females within marriage (Alo, 2008). Public opinion polls have consistently shown that premarital sex is wrong and dangerous to health, resulting in abortions, teenage mothers and sexually transmitted infections (Aaron, 2006; Finer, 2007).
Pre-marital sex is an act of deviation. A deviant act is used here to refer to departure from societal norms that attract social disapproval which is likely to elicit negative sanctions. When students of different ages, nationalities, ethnic and religious backgrounds and status are brought together in a higher institutions environment, opportunities exist for sexual relationship.
Pre-marital sex is a violation of sexual norms and values of a society. Abdullahi (2004) explained that values are conceptions of what is right (good, desirable and proper) and wrong (bad, undesirable and improper). , Ibrahim (2003) observed, seem to value free sexual life on campus.
Unlike students of the 1970s and l980s, most students in present day Nigeria are likely to be of the view that life has little or no meaning without sexual interaction on campus.
From (1991) views the modern world as being strangulated between robotism and humanism life, he observed has no meaning; there is no joy, no reality, and no faith. In a situation like this, individuals resort to the comforts of the body, particularly in a university environment. Moreover, universities in modern Nigeria seem to have lost their focus in (lie area of student’s discipline).
Warner (1973) observed that sex before marriage is seen as normal and a pleasurable satisfaction which young adults experience.
The major consequence of premarital sex is pregnancy which of cause leads to abortion.
Abortion has become rampant all over the world. It is a common issue among the teenagers and adult women in the society. Issues relating to abortion has been on and generated a heated argument and distressing statistics concerning abortion have been documented.
Abortion has been defined in a number of ways. According to Ihediwa Okoro, 2007, abortion may be spontaneous in which case, the fetus was expelled due to accidental trauma, natural cause or environmental. It may equally be induced by deliberate human effort. According to him, this is a calculated forced ejection of fetus from the uterus.
Abortion is defined by Bakare as the termination of pregnancy before fetal viability. Roche believed the term ‘Abortion’ is synonymous with induced abortion while in medical texts, the word ‘abortion’ might exclusively refer to spontaneous abortion which could also be referred to as miscarriage.
National Training Manual defines abortion as the ending of a pregnancy before the baby in the womb is able to stay alive outside the mother’s body. In another re-printed version of the manual, abortion is the termination of a pregnancy on or before twenty-four weeks of pregnancy. According to the manual, it is estimated that about 40% of maternal deaths are from abortion and its complications. There are about 610,000 unsafe abortions in Nigeria annually. In a study of 1000 female adolescents in Benin City, it was found that 68.8% of unintended pregnancies ended in induced abortion. In another study, in Ilorin, 74% of the 264 women who presented with complications from induced abortion were adolescents (WHO Geneva, 2002).
Also, Odeh gave an alarming rate of 760,000 abortions yearly resulting in 140,000 hospitalizations in Nigeria. Odeh(2005).
Women go for abortion despite all the complications that may arise, ranging from immediate to lifelong complications and even deaths. Adolescents have the highest risk of serious complications from the unsafe abortion, this is worse in countries were abortion is restricted by law. It is estimated that 46 million abortions are performed each year, 20 million of which occur in countries where abortion is prohibited by law (WHO 2006).
Globally maternal deaths and infections due to complications of premarital sex and abortion is on the rise from 13 to 20% (WHO,2003, World Health Report 2005), women are still risking their life as well as criminal consequences to terminate their pregnancies, this explains their need of avoiding or delaying having a child at a particular time in their lives.
Addressing the problem cause by premarital sex and abortion especially among Olabisi Onabanjo University will help in dealing directly with maternal mortality and morbidity, and other ill- health issues. This will be achieved by exploring the extent at which premarital sex and abortion as been a major cause of ill-health among university students. These consequences include, unwanted pregnancy, STDs, HIV/STls herpes, (sores and painful swelling of genital), gonorrhea, (pelvic pain and painful urination) and HIV (a virus that kills immune system) which are in existence among students. They further explained that those who engage in group sex, sharp-sharp sex and sodomy account for a greater proportion of STI‟s victims (Chlamydia and gonorrhea). These diseases are life-threatening, painful and can destroy lives.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The study of premarital sex and abortion should not be over emphasized. Unstable health has been a major issue among university students which cause an increase in the number of student visiting Health center on daily basis which were caused as a result of premarital involvement in illicit sex and abortion exercise. The problem of premarital sex and abortion in Olabisi Onabanjo University community is a very big but much underreported; Women are not open to discussion on the sensitive issue of abortion and premarital sex.
So this study investigated on the correlation between ill health and premarital sex and abortion.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was conducted to achieve the following:
1. To investigate the effect of premarital sex and abortion on O.O.U student’s health.
2. To access the causes of unmarried sex and abortion.
3. To determine the correlation of ill health among students on premarital sex and abortion.
1.4 Research Question
The study answered the following questions:-
1. What proportion of female in O.O.U that has ever had an abortion?
2. What are the reasons for abortion among students?
3. What are the factors influencing female youths committing abortion?
4. What is the perception of Female and male students of Olabisi Onabanjo University on ill Health effect of premarital sex and abortion?
5. What is the perception of male and female health workers of Olabisi Onabanjo University on ill health effect of premarital sex and abortion?
The following hypotheses were tested:
1. Premarital sex will not significantly cause and predispose to ill health condition.
2. Abortion will not significantly cause and predispose to ill health condition.
3. There will be no significant difference in the perception of male and female students on the ill health effect of premarital sex.
4. There will be no significant difference in the perception of male and female students on the ill-health effects of abortion.
5. There will be no significant relationship in the perception of the students between abortion and ill health.
6. There will be no significant relationship in the perception of the students between premarital sex and ill health conditions.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The fact that this study is important cannot be over emphasis. Hence, the study was set to bring to fore, the effect of premarital sex and Abortion as a cause of Ill health among Olabisi Onabanjo university students.
An understanding of the magnitude of destruction caused by premarital sex and abortion among female students of O.O.U and as well as the factors that is associated with this dangerous act at the institution level and community level will help the students to stay away from the undue act, which is the main reason for this research.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to:
1. The students of O.O.U at all levels and all faculties in the main campus
2. The use of self structured questionnaire as instrument for data collection
3. The use of descriptive survey research design
4. The use of multiple regression to assess level of correlation and T.test to test for difference in opinion at 0.05 alpha level
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The limitations that the researcher experienced in the quest of finding the truth in this study are as follows:
Some of the respondents failed to return the filled questionnaire.
Some of them did not complete all the space provided especially the demographic aspect of the participants characteristics. Other limitation in the course of the study was adequately taken care of by the researcher.
1.9 Definition of Terms:
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs): are infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex or oral sex e.g Gonorrhea.
Premarital sex: sexual involvement happening or existing before marriage which is common among undergraduates.
Abortion: when an unviable fetus is expelled.
Fetus: an unborn offspring of human.
Adolescence: the process or stage of growing to maturity.
Ill Health: all health conditions that may be due to abortion and premarital sex.
Maternal death: is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy.
Chlamydia: is a common STD that can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible to get pregnant. Chlamydia is the major cause of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb).
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