1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Teachers are normally expected to teach, evaluate, revise and improve their teaching by employing various evaluation techniques such as test-essay and objectives, checklists and rating scale (Ughamadu 2006). The improvement of teaching entails analyzing the feedback from the evaluation data. Evaluation involves analysis of the entire educational situation – subject matter, method of assessment as well as the instructional objective.
Evaluation does not separate itself from teaching. It is an integral part of the lesson or teaching-learning process. No instructional process can be termed successful unless it has been evaluated. It is advisable that the teacher must establish the objectives of the lesson and then goes ahead to select the procedures or learning activities, and teaching materials to achieve the objectives. The teacher has to determine the techniques of evaluation that are most appropriate to lead to the attainment of the objectives that have been selected.
Evaluation is considered a stage in the curriculum planning and development process. It is not seen as the terminal phase since modern conception of curriculum development process is that it is a dynamic, cyclic and continuous one. Thus evaluation could bring about the need to have another look at curriculum objectives. This in turn will affect the content and learning experiences and even evaluation. Besides, evaluation is inbuilt in all the stages of the curriculum development process. When we are selecting goals, objectives and evaluation on the basis of some criteria, we are involved in some form of evaluation. Guga and Bawa (2012) defined Evaluation as the process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives have been achieved. This is basically what teachers do when they set tests or give assignments.
Basically, we have two types of evaluation; formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is undertaken during the development stage of a curriculum when the curriculum is being developed and tried out before its final adoption. The feedback information that is obtained from formative evaluation, is used by curriculum developers as an input to improve or modify the curriculum further before its final adoption.
Summative evaluation is the type of evaluation undertaken when the programme under development has come to an end. It is the evaluation of the total programme after it has been fully developed, adopted and implemented so as to assess the overall effectiveness of the curriculum.
Ultimate evaluation is usually undertaken when the programme under development has come to an end and is already in the market, and the beneficiaries are in the field putting what they have learned into practice (Damar, 2005). Schul, (n.d.) has also opined that evaluation involves determining the extent to which educational programmes have, or have not succeeded in relation to the set goals or objectives.
Evaluation plays an important role in the process of curriculum evaluation. Evaluation helps the teacher to determine how effective his strategies are in terms of effective learning. It also forms a basis for job placement. Evaluation serves as a means for identifying the areas that learners have learning difficulty. Evaluation also helps to shape students’ attitude to what is taught. Often times, the thought of tests and examination forces students to be more committed to their work (Guga and Bawa, 2012).
Moreso, the purpose of evaluation is to ascertain the extent to which set objectives have been achieved. Evaluation is used to determine the strength and weakness of the programme. It is also used for advancement of students to other level and to improve the curriculum. Evaluation further serves as feedback to parents.
However, through constant evaluation, teachers/evaluators get to know areas of shortcomings which need to be corrected so that the goals of education can be achieved. With this, evaluation can be used for the improvement of curriculum, promotion of teachers, the award of scholarships to students. It could also be used for the advancement of students into the next grade. Evaluation could be used to determine the type of education that is best suited to the needs of a society (Damar 2005).
Instructional objectives, on the other hand are what a learner will be able to do as a result of being led in an instruction. Objectives are educational values. It is not possible to make an educational evaluation using the techniques, until objectives are clearly stated or defined for easy recognition of the expected end.
Objectives in education are statements of expected outcomes from educational programmes, or from particular lessons. Objectives can as well be seen as proposed or expected changes in behaviour which a learner should acquire in the course of an educational programme, and manifest such in an observable manner when the course is complete. Guga and Bawa (2012) are of the opinion that objectives are desired outcomes of an educational programme, school level, or specific lessons.
Objectives are grouped into three: ultimate, mediate and proximate goals. Ultimate goals are the broad objectives expressed in categories of behaviour. The National Policy on Education (2004), provides us with the ultimate goals of education.
(a) A free and democratic society
(b) Just and egalitarian society
(c) United, strong and self-reliant nation
(d) Great and dynamic economy
(e) Land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens.
Mediate goals are patterns of expected change in behaviours at particular stages of an education period for example primary school, junior secondary, senior secondary school. Proximate goals on the other hand constitute the most specific learning outcomes. They are the instructional objectives set by the teacher in the various lesson, that is at the end of a lesson.
Objectives are classified into three: The affective domain, the cognitive domain and the psychomotor domain. The cognitive domain emphasizes remembering or reproducing of something, which has been learned. Cognitive domain demands recall or a more complex way of combining and synthesizing new ideas and materials. The levels in cognitive domain are in hierarchical order, from the simplest to the more complex ones. These are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Ughamadu, 2006).
The Affective Domain: Also called attitude domain deals with the total personality of an individual that is, his attitudes, his interests and temperaments. In fact, it emphasizes a feeling tone, an emotion and a degree of acceptance or rejection of ideas. Affective domain are also arranged in hierarchical order. They fall into five levels: Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organization and Characterization.
The Psychomotor Domain: This domain of the educational objectives is concerned with the development of motor skills in learners. To achieve the objectives in psychomotor domain, both mental and bodily activities are involved. This domain also comprises mainly of learning which requires some cognition and primary skills demanding movement of the body. They are developed in the field like Physical and Health Education, Technical, Business Education and Home Economics. Psychomotor domain falls into four levels of manipulative skills (Olaitan and Ali, 1997 in Damar, 2005). They are observing, initiating practicing and adapting.
Objectives in the evaluation process are of utmost importance. Objectives help students to know what is expected of them. It serves as a guide for teachers to know exactly what they are doing. Objectives help both teachers and students to direct their efforts towards the achievement of the set objectives. It provides the student with the means of evaluating his own progress at any place along the route of instruction. Objectives are important also, because it helps teachers to select test items and to clearly reflect the students ability to perform the desired skills. Objectives help students to organize their efforts into relevant activities.
Moreso, in selecting objectives in classroom situations. Firstly the learner is studied as to derive educational aims (Tyler, 1975). The learner’s interest, his socio-economic backgrounds, his needs and age. Secondly, the contemporary society needs to be studied, because the learners cannot be educated in isolation of the environment they live in and interact. Thirdly, the subject specialist. They are specialists and knowledgeable in different subject areas. Most of them are authors of textbooks used in schools.
Evaluation techniques are various processes used in evaluating students’ performance in a given instruction. These techniques are instruments used to probe the learning abilities of the learners and adjustment of the possible weakness likely to be encountered. The role of evaluation techniques in the educational process has been of enormous value to individuals and those in education. Evaluation technique helps improve teacher’s initiative and clearly stated objectives and goals. Techniques of evaluation will help the teacher watch and study behaviour systematically. They also determine whether or not particular behaviour traits are present or absent. Through evaluation techniques, information about affective behaviour of students can be obtained. Teachers can get information relating to the students’ attitudes, interests and personality characteristics. Evaluation techniques can be used to assess/evaluate the pattern of social relationship in a group of students and in finding out the extent to which a student is accepted by his peers or classmates. The classroom teacher has knowledge of the pattern of social relationship of his students can use it in arranging group works or projects.
In Christian Religious Studies, unlike other subjects, there are evaluation techniques peculiar to the subject. We have the student portfolios, the teachers observation, essays and multiple choice test, the pre and post unit understandings, checklists and anecdotal records.
Evaluation does not separate itself from objectives. It is an integral part of teaching. No instructional process can be termed successful unless it has been evaluated. It is advisable that the CRS teachers must establish their objectives to be achieved during evaluation. The relationship between objective and evaluation could be expressed in the following questions: What do I teach? (objective). How well have I taught? (evaluation). The two questions look related. When objectives change, evaluation would be affected. Objectives provide a means of clarifying the purpose of evaluation. Objectives and evaluation guide the teaching and learning process from the beginning to the end. Evaluation items such as checklist examination and rating scale devises to collect information about student progress seek to measure the objectives. Due to the relationship objectives have with evaluation, it avoids duplication in what is to be learned. However, the teacher cannot hope for satisfactory results if the objectives sought are not related to the other aspects of instruction (evaluation) (Guga and Bawa, 2012).
The Christian Religious Studies curriculum, is one of the important subjects offered in the junior secondary schools in Jema’a. The Christian Religious Studies curriculum has not been given the status required, largely as a result of the misguided belief that anyone can teach Christian Religious Studies. It is not surprising, then, that the quality of religious teaching in secondary schools continues to be very much inferior to that of other subject on school curriculum (Ilori, 1992).
The Christian religious studies curriculum in a needy society like Nigeria demands and must have a satisfying philosophy of education. We live in the midst of constant change and crisis and this age stands in need for the kind of education which provides a stable place to stand which CRS only can offer, to this end a radical approach in both content and method is required for teaching and learning of CRS in junior secondary schools. The importance of CRS to a nation’s development cannot be overemphasized. Students’ achievement in morals and academics depends on junior secondary school CRS teachers’ equipment on relationship of the evaluation techniques and instructional objectives.
The JSS CRS curriculum demands a lot – the moral aspect and the content coverage by the CRS teachers. The curriculum is divided into various themes – Achieving freedom, and how God wants people to be free. The Holy Spirit, early days of the Church, Paul’s activities, the spread of the gospel outside Palestine, controversies among the early Christian believers, further spread of the church. Paul and the civil authorities, Paul goes to Rome, the Christian church today. The JSS CRS curriculum also covers the early life of Jesus Christ, how Jesus Christ prepares for his life’s ministry which includes lessons such as Jesus Christ Baptism, temptation and how he selects his disciples. The themes continues with Jesus Christ welcomes people, Jesus Christ cares for people, Jesus Christ teaching in parables, Jesus Christ and laws, some other teachings of Jesus Christ, Jesus Christ the messiah accepts suffering and death for us, and the last theme the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
The teaching of CRS however, is not without any challenges. Therefore, the lapses in the planned national curriculum that militate against the JSS CRS teachers are associated with relating evaluation technique with objectives. Lapses such as the teacher’s objectives may be unclear to the students. Curriculum planners do not consider the level of students’ understanding when planning the curriculum.
Also, CRS teachers face the challenge of not having enough or required instructional materials. And the national curriculum does not consider the age of the students, psychological status of the learner, aspirations of the learner, including previous knowledge of the learner. It became pertinent to find out the relationship between junior secondary school teacher’s evaluation techniques and instructional objectives in teaching Christian Religious Studies in Kaduna State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Evaluation is meant to cover the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The relationship between the objective and the evaluation is a task CRS teachers need to practice. But it is not carried out in this manner some Christian Religious Studies teachers do not relate the instructional objectives stated with the evaluation techniques they use. Some unqualified Christian Religious Studies teachers collect students’ notebooks, mark and score them for assessment instead of written questions and assignments role-playing and compiling records of field trips to cover their instructional objectives stated during their lesson.
This inappropriateness in relating the instructional objectives calls for this research. Evidence of dissatisfaction, cumulative and comprehensive nature of the evaluation process, lack of knowledge on test construction by teachers and number of students enrolled into a particular, where there are too many students for a teacher to attend to simultaneously, which may not permit teachers the time to administer to students using the appropriate evaluation techniques required by the CRS curriculum.
In a situation where evaluation demands extra tasks, time and field work, some of the JSS Christian Religious Studies teachers are not capable of handling such task in relating evaluation techniques with their instructional objectives. Some topics that require students to write reports are to be followed strictly, to enable successful attainment of course content objectives. Sometimes this is poorly or not followed by the junior secondary school teachers. On the contrary, the usual written essay tests and objective tests techniques are used most as the easiest means of evaluation. There are evaluation techniques for every content or unit in a subject which will meet its objectives. The study will also look into challenges JSS Christian Religious Studies teachers face in relating their objectives, when it comes to evaluating their lessons. It is however expected of JSS Christian Religious Studies teachers to use the appropriate and recommended evaluation devices in relation to the course content objectives.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to find out relationships between junior secondary school teachers evaluation techniques and instructional objectives in teaching Christian Religious Studies in Kaduna State.
Specifically, the study aims at achieving the following objectives:
i. Determine the role evaluation plays in achieving set instructional objectives.
ii. Examine the evaluation techniques most appropriate as contained in the CRS curriculum, for the teaching of CRS.
iii. Find out the evaluation techniques used by CRS teachers in relation to what is contained in the curriculum.
iv. To find out the relationship between evaluation questions and instructional objectives used by CRS teachers.
v. To determine the lapses in the planned national curriculum as it pertains to relating evaluation techniques and objectives.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are developed for answering in the study:
i. What role do evaluation techniques play in achieving stated instructional objectives by CRS teachers?
ii. What are the evaluation techniques most appropriate in the teaching of CRS?
iii. What are the evaluation techniques used by CRS teachers in the teaching of CRS?
iv. What are the relationships between evaluation questions and instructional objectives used by CRS teachers?
v. What are the lapses in relating evaluation techniques and objectives in the planned national curriculum?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses are developed to be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
1. There is no significant effect of lapses on the perceived relationship between evaluation techniques and objectives by JSS CRS teachers in teaching Christian Religious Studies in Kaduna State.
2. There is no significant association between evaluation techniques most appropriate for teaching CRS by JSS CRS teachers and evaluation techniques actually used in teaching CRS by JSS CRS teachers in Kaduna State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this study however, it is the researcher’s strongest desire that this study will provide useful information and awareness to junior secondary school CRS teachers and other teachers to see the need to relate their evaluation techniques with instructional objectives at the end of their lessons (evaluation).
This study will indicate to curriculum planners or teachers what a building plan is to a builder. If we don’t relate the evaluation technique and the objectives well, the lesson becomes directionless and if wrongly formulated, provides wrong signals. To the individual learner – he bears in mind that he will be assessed using the objectives in psychomotor, cognitive and affective domain generally, and help the students set their own goals that will be useful to them in life. To the planners in deciding what instructional strategy should be employed. They are being guided by the set objectives in making decisions of this nature, he always asks the questions, to what extent will this or that strategy/technique help to attain the set objectives, and identify those that can best assist in achieving the set objectives.
It will further provide an understanding of the varying techniques and their application in relating them with objectives set, that will bring about a better understanding of concept and role of evaluation in an educational system. It will also encourage JSS CRS teachers to employ wealth of knowledge with wide range of skills to judge appropriately as they consider the evaluation of each student, which affect the student’s future.
1.7 THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Educational objectives as propounded by Benjamin S. Bloom (1956), Anderson, and Krathwhol (2001) has been found very relevant to this study and therefore used as the theoretical framework for the study. Bloom’s taxonomy was originally created in and for an academic context. Bloom’s taxonomy claims that for a child to operate at the evaluation level, he requires the ability to embrace elements of all the other categories as well as the conscious value judgment based upon clearly stated conditions. The child has to know something before he can understand, apply, analyze, synthesize or even assess the learned material.
According to Bloom, the taxonomy of educational objectives attempts a classification, which examines the balance of curriculum objectives. The taxonomy is a logical psychological classification designed to reflect the decisions made in terms of student behaviours in the development of curricula. The logical dimension of the taxonomy stems from the fact that its terms are defined precisely and used consistently.
Furthermore, this classification identifies three domains of educational objectives: the cognitive domain, the affective domain and the psychomotor domain. The levels and the categories of the domains as they relate to the classroom instructional objectives. It is worthy of note that each level is assumed to involve a behaviour, which is more complex and abstract than the previous level.
The Cognitive Domain: Emphasize remembering, or reproducing of something which has been learned. Cognitive objectives may demand recall or a more complex way of combining and synthesizing new ideas and materials. The levels in this domain are categorized in hierarchical order, from the simplest to the more complex ones. These are knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
The Affective Domain: The objectives in this domain emphasize a feeling of tone, an emotion and a degree of acceptance or rejection of ideas. The objectives in this level range from simple to complex qualities – Receiving, responding, valuing, organization and characterization.
The Psychomotor Domain: The domain of the educational objectives is intended to develop manipulative and motor skills in learners. Achieving the objectives in this domain involves both mental and bodily activities. It comprises mainly of learning which requires some cognition and primary skills demanding movement of the body (Ughamadu, 2006).
The taxonomy helps teachers to analyze the test they give to students to determine – (i) a test’s relevance and (ii) over – or – under emphasis on particular objectives. The taxonomy in addition, presents a developmental picture of the way in which educational objectives are reached from simple to complex objectives. It therefore, draws the teacher’s attention on the development of simple behaviours as building blocks for the more complex objectives.
In all, Bloom’s model of educational objectives proves most useful in providing checklist for the systematic production and evaluation of curriculum objectives. Offorma, (1994).
The purpose of taxonomy of educational objectives is to provide a tool for classifying instructional objectives. The levels of objectives in the taxonomy help teachers in clarifying instructional objectives and provide a basis for test development. It equally provides an excellent structure for planning, designing, assessing and evaluating training and learning effectiveness. It is also aimed at developing a system of categories of learning behaviour, to assist in the design and assessment of educational learning. The theoretical framework could be used to facilitate communication among examiners. It could promote the exchange of test materials and ideas about testing.
1.8 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited to evaluation, objectives and the relationship between junior secondary school teacher’s evaluation techniques and instructional objectives in teaching Christian Religious Studies in Kaduna State.
The study will concern itself with the role evaluation techniques play in achieving the set instructional objectives, the extent to which JSS CRS teachers are conversant with test construction. Also factors that militate against teacher’s relating evaluation techniques with objectives. The study will be delimited to taxonomy of educational objectives.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Evaluation: Evaluation is a continuous process, which diagnoses the strengths and weaknesses in a programme. This entails that evaluation is a powerful tool or device for clarifying education objectives.
Evaluation Technique: These are various processes used in evaluating students’ performance in a given instruction. These techniques are instruments used to probe the learning abilities of the learners and adjustment of the possible weakness likely to be encountered. They are line up or unique activities which the teacher employs to carry out particular teaching methods. Some of the techniques include – rating scale, test, examination, checklist, observation, interview, assignments, questionnaire anecdotal records and sociometric technique.
Objectives: This is an intent communicated by a statement describing a proposed change in a learner, that is, what a learner is to be like when he has successfully completed a learning experience or a chosen segment of instruction. This covers the objective of both teachers and their students.
Christian Religious Studies Curriculum: Is a subject and content to be studied in school which embraces all the planned and organized activities provided by the school to enable learners become useful members of the society.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS