1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Most formal organizations like science and technical colleges are aimed at effective and efficient management of the human and material resources available for the attainment of organizational goals. The classroom teacher is charged with lots of functions to perform in the teaching and learning process. The most challenging functions of the classroom teacher are strategies for classroom management and control. In order to deal with the possible already existing and forthcoming Classroom Management problems, teachers from all over the world are employing a number of strategies. Whether these strategies work well for their classrooms, or just fail is the research area for teacher education researchers (Baker, Lang, & Lawson, 2002; Demir, 2009; Tahir & Qadir, 2012). For building an effective training model, there is an urgent need for the examination of the Classroom Management issues in depth and the identification of Science and Technical college teachers’ management techniques that are best suited for effective teaching. Therefore, this study will show an attempt to provide insights into the pedagogical strategies Teachers employ to plan, organize, and motivate student learning. An inquiry in helping teachers become effective classroom managers will benefit not only their students but also science and technical colleges teaching methodology courses provided in faculties of education. Furthermore, although it has found its place in teacher education research and teaching methodologies, there has been little research done to investigate the Classroom Management problems teachers face while they are delivering lessons. The academic achievement of students of a particular classroom can be attributed to the teacher’s ability to manage and control the classroom during instruction. Oyira (2011) reported that the variable that measures the classroom learning environment as perceived by students actually predicts their attitude towards schooling and academic performance. All educational plans of a school involving teaching and learning takes place in the classroom. According to Kyriacou (2013) the classroom is the meeting point for both teachers and students where curricular activities are implemented .Educational objectives cannot be fully achieved without the use of conducive classroom environment. The classroom is characterized by a network of interpersonal relationships directed at the attainment of educational goals. Oyira, (2011) refers interpersonal relationship as the reciprocal behaviour that occurs between individuals such as exchange of information, exchange of expression and mutual activities. Classroom management is a prerequisite for achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding the well being of students for whom the teaching and learning activities are centered (Ogunu, 2013). Classroom management entails planning, supervising, controlling and coordinating the activities of pupils in teaching –learning process. That education given to science and technical colleges students in order to develop their cognitive, affective and psychomotor abilities and skills, and grow in school environments that are supportive and challenging which nurture them to become confident, have good self-esteem and willing to strive forward yet at the same time feel a sense of responsibility towards others in the society is Quality education. Despite the efforts to provide quality education, the secondary school system continues to face challenges that could compromise the quality of education provided. This is a great task that teachers face on daily basis which require them to work diligently and continuously to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere. The ability of teachers to organize of their students is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. Classroom management include all the efforts teachers make in the following areas, organizing the students, co-coordinating their activities, monitoring their behaviours, ensuring effective learning process, providing instruction through interactive communication, getting feedbacks from learners, preparing and utilizing instructional materials in facilitating learning, maintaining discipline among learners, evaluating learning outcome, ensuring that the problems of above average learners are being solved, relating on one to one basis with learners, being mindful of their basic needs, providing basic information to learners, assisting learners in developing coping skills, providing an exemplary behaviour for learners to imitate, and generating interest among learners as well as reinforcing their performance through motivational techniques (Egbule, 2013). Classroom teachers are known as classroom managers because of their roles in managing learning activities, instructional procedures, the prevailing attitudes, feeling and atmosphere in the classroom. Teaching and classroom management cannot be separated because effective classroom management is characterized by effective discipline, and discipline is seen as an instruction, training of the mind, and subjection to school rules and regulations. Though discipline may seem harsh and unpractical for students, it is the most essential element in securing effective classroom management and an excellent academic performance of students which leads to quality education.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Classroom management is a multi-faceted activity and extends beyond the traditional behaviour management techniques recommended to deal with students with disruptive behaviour. Teachers should develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students; organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning; they may use group management methods that encourage student engagement with academic tasks; promote the development of student social skills and self regulation; and use appropriate interventions to assist students who have behaviour problems. The importance of good classroom management in the realization of the objectives of education cannot be over emphasized. Teaching and learning is very embracing involving a wide range of activities such as writing on chalkboard, discussing with students, demonstrating a procedure, supervising student’s class work, reading and marking assignments. Good classroom environment with good desks and seats well spaced out, well ventilated, good lighting, good ceiling and roof and smooth floor enhances effective teaching and learning. When the classroom environment provides students what they need, equilibrium occurs but when the classroom environment does not, there is disequilibrium. The researcher has observed that most science and technical colleges in Benue State, the classroom are over populated. In most of these schools, a teacher student’s ratio of 1:80 is evidenced. The national policy on education revised (2014) recommended a teacher-student’s ratio of 1:40 for normal or regular school. Besides, research has revealed an increasing rate of behaviour problems among secondary school students during lessons (Yaduma and Abdulhamid, 2007).The main thrust of this study is to identify the effective classroom management techniques for science and technical colleges in Zone A senatorial district of Benue State, Nigeria in view of the implication of the overwhelming teacher-student’s ratio.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine strategies for overcoming poor classroom management and control. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of effective classroom management strategies on student’s academic achievement
H1: There is a significant impact of effective classroom management strategies on student’s academic achievement
H0: There is no significant relationship between strategies for overcoming poor classroom management and students academic achievement.
H1: There is a significant relationship between strategies for overcoming poor classroom management and students academic achievement.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A major concern in schools is to increase student achievement. One way to do this is to focus on classroom environment with the teacher at the centre which will influence student achievement and create the best environment in which to facilitate learning and engage students. The study is therefore significant for the following reasons:
• This study will be useful to both teachers and students who would want to know the factors that could make or mar student’s academic performance.
• Understanding classroom climate variables will allow for professional development for teachers to focus on areas to increase student achievement.
• Lastly, understanding the importance of teachers and their impact on student performance will help school administrators at science and technical colleges retrain teachers to make them understand classroom management strategies and control.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on strategies for overcoming poor classroom management and control, a case study of science and technical colleges in Zone A Senatorial District of Benue state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Science: The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.
Classrooms: A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.
Management: Management refers to the process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the resources (physical, human) required to achieve the goals/functions of teaching and learning (i.e., attending to the logistics of teaching).
Strategy: A strategy is any action or instruction or series of actions directed by the teacher to achieve a specific task – what the teachers does.
Classroom management: Classroom management refers to the actions of the teacher to ensure that things get done. It has to do with rules, routines, structure – managing instruction, organizing learning materials and activities.
Behaviour management: Behaviour management refers to the use of proactive and reactive strategies to alleviate off-task behaviours – helping students to act responsibly, gain self-control.
Comprehensive classroom management: Comprehensive classroom management refers to all the actions and interactions that occur in the classroom from the start to the finish of the lesson. Behaviour management is one aspect of this process.
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