This purpose of this research work is to examine the effective management of private secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State. In Nigeria, for any activity of either management, administration or planning. It has to start by defining the objective or output expected. In achieving these objectives, certain means of input are available. Questionnaire were abstracted for both the school administrator and students which were later analyzed and reach out on conclusion.
1.1 Background to the Study
Effectiveness of school management is measured by the ability to attain the primary goal for which the school is established, which is to prepare students under custody for their future endeavors according to individuals’ potentials. This is done by directing the students’ activities towards maximizing use of hidden potentials in them, which will make them successful and self-reliant in life. In order to attain the goal, the school management employs services of people with diverse orientation and interest. How successful the school management is in coordinating the activities of all the services of people involved (both staff and students) towards the attainment of the goal is a reflection of their effectiveness.
However, despite the high cost involved in running a private secondary education in Nigeria, private individuals still meet disappointment in these private schools which is due to the high level of poor performance of which is linked to the ineffective management of these schools. Many parents patronize private secondary schools, even at the detriment of their family obligations, so as to afford their children educational opportunity which money can buy. This paved way for more private secondary schools to spring up.
In analyzing the effective management of private secondary schools, there will be more focus on the resource 1 management and academic performance in these schools with special attention to those factors that affect their effectiveness.
The establishment, management and effectiveness of secondary education has grown with years, this discussion will therefore be on the historical setting.
The birth of secondary education in Nigeria like primary education can be traced to the missionary bodies - The Roman Catholic Mission, The Church Missionary Society and The Methodist. These religious bodies wanted and needed education to meet the economic, social and political challenges they met in the course of their evangelization. They therefore set up schools to produce educated people to serve as interpreters. At the early stages of secondary education, was largely the concern of missionaries. Missionaries built and managed schools. Predictably, since education was the brain-child of missionaries, they determined its content and mode of operation.Each mission controlled and managed her school according to her style and to suite her own purpose. Each mission set up Management Board, regulated its curriculum, fixed teachers
salaries and determined code of conduct requirements.
Since the focus of the Christian mission according to Awoyemi, Adesina and Ogunsanya (1994), the curriculum was model along the lines of British Grammar Schools and with a large dose of religious instructions. Although, the aim of education was essentially identical for all the missions, each mission managed education in a way to achieve specific objectives. The first secondary school, CMS Grammar School, Lagos was established in 1859 by the CMS Mission. Others that followed included:
St. Gregory's College, Lagos (1876);
Methodist Boys High School Lagos (1878);
Baptist Academy, Lagos (1883); and
CMS Girls Grammar School, Lagos (1892).
It was not until 1909 that the first Government College, Kings College was established in Lagos. Government at this time showed very little interest in education and its funding, so neither made elaborate legislature provisions for it nor managed or controlled it. Government however, benefited from it because its junior civil servants and clerks were products of these mission institutions.
The years before independence and up to the end of the civil war in 1970 saw the continued growth of secondary education particularly in South Nigeria. According to Fafunwa (1974), major educational expansion at the post primary level took place between 1955 and 1965. The following options were available:
Secondary Grammar School;
Secondary Modern School;
Comprehensive Modern School;
Secondary Commercial School;
Technical Secondary Schools; and
These were run by Government, Missionary Bodies and Private individuals. The takeover of schools by Government brought about the reappearance of a few private secondary schools on the educational scene.
The National Policy on Education explained on Government role in the effective management of secondary education in the following statement:
‘’Government control of secondary schools will involve regulating the opening of schools and inspecting all schools regularly and ensuring the provision of well qualified teaching staff and generally ensuring that all schools follow Government approved curricula and conform to the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1998).’’
Governments carry out this assignment through the establishment of Federal and State Ministries of Education. The management of secondary schools education in Nigeria is becoming more and more complex because of rapid increase in school enrolment, inadequate physical, material, human and financial resources and the non - chalant attitudes of Government towards the welfare of the teachers. As a result of these problems, the National Policy on Education page 22 paragraphs 24, 1998 states that: Government welcomes the participation of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals’ establishment and management of secondary education.
Therefore, for secondary education objectives to be realized and for effective management, the community people where schools are located should be actively involved in the management of secondary education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor performance of secondary schools students in public examinations have remained a subject of discourse. Though factors like inadequate facilities, lack of commitment on the part of the teachers among others have been advanced as reasons for poor performance of students from public schools, the occurrence of this scenario in private schools which are believed to be better equipped is worrisome. Among the factors that have been argued in literature is ineffectiveness of school management. This study therefore attempts to examine how effective or otherwise private secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State are managed.
1.3 Research Questions
In the course of the above statement of problem, the following questions are raised:
What are the factors responsible for the effective management of private secondary schools in Nigeria? How has the management of private secondary schools in Nigeria affected the academic performance of students in these schools? What are the methods of managing human resources used to improve the management of private secondary schools in Nigeria? How are the teachers motivated to improve productivity in these schools?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the effective management of resources available to improve the effectiveness and productivity in private secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is important in the following ways:
· It will bring about increase in the quality of products which can be viewed from the input resources and educational output perspective in private secondary schools in Nigeria.
· It will bring about abilities and competencies both mental and physical in the individuals to live and contribute to the development of the society.
· It will accomplish parts of the national goal and objectives, that is, having more qualified and effective graduates in the labour market.
In the course of fulfilling these objectives, this research work is being carried out.
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms
In order to bring about better understanding of this research project, some operational terms used in this study are clearly defined.
Efficiency: This could be defined as the ratio of useful work performed or output produced to the total or input expended.
Effectiveness:- This is the process of integrating efforts of personnel and utilizing appropriate materials in such a way to promote the development of human qualities.
Management:- This is a means of controlling change through the use of resources (human and material) to achieve organizational system goals.
Curriculum:- This is the totality of information to be disseminated to the learner in order to attain desired behavioral attitude or change.
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