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Project Topic:

TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ OPINION ON THE ROLE OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN ERADICATING GIRL-CHILD ABUSE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN KANO STATE

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 63 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   1,263 people found this useful

Project Department:

EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

General, childhood represents a sensitive period that requires handling with greater care and attention. This readily explains why parents, guardians, nannies, teachers and others in the business of child mending often go the extra mile to care for and protect the interests of children. Obviously, this is quite understandable as children are expectedly quite vulnerable. It is in view of their vulnerable nature that the United Nations and its affiliated bodies spare nothing to ensure the safety and general wellbeing of children all over the world. Consequently, since 1979, when the un decided to focus more on children‟s rights the attention of the world has shifted towards child‟s protection, care and security. Hence, several rights have been proclaimed as indispensable for the child. These include rights to love and understanding, adequate food and health, free education, play an identity and special attention of the handicapped regardless of colour, sex, religion and other social – cultural divides (UN, 1979). Regrettably though, child abuse has, over the years, remained a recurring plight that major global child rights advocates and groups have been working hard to deal with. According to the international labour organization (ilo, 2001), 80 million children of 18 years old and below are working as labourers all over the world while another two million engage in child – prostitution. Without a doubt, child abuse remains a foremost global danger to the development of children.

Ugly incidences of callous maltreatment of children, like the one described above, still abound in a world that is gradually losing its sanity. Some of the things that

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constitute child abuse include maltreatment of children, sexual harassment, denial of education, child-labour, intimidation and molestation, physical assaults, neglect, and child trafficking among others. As with other such heinous tendencies, child abuse has grave consequences. For one, it lead to emotional distress, dejection and frustration. It could also lead to unplanned pregnancy, which could result into abortion and possibly untimely death. Other effects of child abuse include uncontrollable aggression, bitterness, anger, depression, disorderly lifestyle, unfulfilled dreams among others. Research has indicated that child-abuse, has far reaching consequences on not only its victims, but also the community as a whole. Nigerian has an estimated population of 167 million with over 40% within 0-15 years (NBS, 2011 est). Socialization of children is through farming and trading and also through fostering and placements. After the civil war, trade became the main occupation of Nigerian while crude oil became the main export with 90% foreign exchange earnings. These earning were poorly managed leading to severe economic recession from which Nigerian has not yet recovered. Over 70% of the population livs below one us dollars per day or absolute poverty level. Economic misery led to poor families, street trading, hawking, and child domestic work, Almajiri system in the north, “area boys” (violent street young people) in the west and child prostitution and child trafficking in the east. Children, who are worst hit by child abuse, are estimated at 19.3 million in Nigeria (USAID, 2010). In view of the above condition of poverty and economic hardship in the country, the issue of child abuse becomes one of the disturbing social problems.

Against this background, Nigeria, like other members of the global community has been involved in making concerted efforts to frontally confront the eveil of child –

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abuse to private a legal and institutional framework to confront this menace in the country, the national assembly passed the child‟s rights act in 2003. Most states in the country have equally domesticated the law. Kano state government, for instance, has been paying particular attention to the protection of the girl-child. The state has also strengthened its crusade against child abuse by paying considerable attention to street hawking by children of school age as well as the art of engaging children as house maids in a popular programme called girl-child hawkers redemption (Fansar Yartalla).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Child abuse is a common social phenomenon in Nigeria. The rate are which child abuse and neglect is growing in the country and manner it is practiced without qualms along our market places, motor parks, and major streets arouses the researcher‟s interest. The researcher considers this special malady as something that could result in negative effects on the society and therefore, demands urgent investigation and remedy. It is possible that the problem of child abuse and abandonment may have fermented the fabric of the Nigerian society so much that it might be very difficult to control.

Similarly, in Kano Metropolis, it is daily occurrence to see children below 14 hawking wears and other products along the road side (Dawakin-Tofa, 2011). Teenage boys and girls who are suppose to be in school run after vehicles to sell bread, sachet water, fried groundnut, popcorns etc, while some others walk about the nooks and cranny of the city hawking their items. Also at public or private occasions, children from poor homes are always seen parking leftover of foods into nylon bags for their consumption. They also beg celebrants for food to eat and to take home. Similarly,

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Almajiris are seen roaming the streets of the city begging for alms. Some of them even go about the market places stealing articles. All of these ugly sights are traceable to breakdown of homes, the starting point of every child. Thus, parents now push over the responsibility of caring for their children to the school. Many young children who would have been at home at about two years have been pushed over to the school. The tasks therefore become enormous for the teachers and the school management to carry leading to many children being neglected, despised and abused on a daily basis. This clearly undermines the provision for the right of the child on „protection against indecent and inhuman treatment like abuse and neglect‟ earlier stated. Rather, the child has been subjected to all kinds of maltreatment, is not protected, valued nor defended, most times, the other.

Although, some forms of child abuse like child labour, can contribute to the economic growth and development, however, the risks that are attached supersede the economic positive aspect of it. Risks like motor accident, rape, kidnapping, extortion, sexual molestation and the child involvement in robbery and other anti-social behaviour are too great to ignore. For instance, child hawking exposes the child to a lot of hazards like sexual defilement, social assaults, neglects and threat of punishment for speaking out as exemplified above. The consequences of these acts usually result in an unwanted pregnancy, relationship with the opposite gender (UNICEF, 20000). Oloko (1989) noted that street hawking exposes the male and female child to dangers posed by fraudsters and actual murderers because of their vulnerability at odd hawking hours. They are usually under personal jeopardy, harsh and hazardous conditions such as becoming an easy target to occult predators (ritual

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killers). Although, various efforts were made by federal government, and non-governmental organizations to stem the trend, such as the creation of different child welfare agencies, the passage of the child‟s rights act in 2003 by the national assembly and the subsequent passage by some states, not much has been achieved as the trend continues.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research work is to determine the Role of Social Studies Education towards Eradicating Girl-Child Abuse in Kano Municipal and Dala Local Government Areas, Kano State-Nigeria. Therefore the specific objectives of the study are:

i. To find out if differences exist between the opinion of JSSII and JSIII Social Studies students on the role of social studies education in eradication of girl child abuse in Kano Municipal and Dala Local government areas of Kano state-Nigeria;

ii. To find out whether there is difference between the opinion of male and female JSS students on the role of social studies education in the eradicating girl child abuse in Kano Municipal and Dala Local Government Areas of Kano State-Nigeria;

iii. To ascertain the opinion of male and female teachers on the role of social studies education in the eradication of girl child abuse in Kano Municipal and Dala Local Government Areas of Kano state-Nigeria.

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