1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria today as more than ever before there is greater demand for highly creative and innovative teachers who can lead the students onto paths of meaningful learning. An effective and efficient teacher is also one of the factors that will contribute to effective instruction in education. The achievement of effective and efficient teaching and learning in schools has been one of the perennial problems in education. Other problems include the nature of the curriculum, controversial nature of the subjects and poor methods of instruction. Perception is the way people judge others with whom they are in contact. A person’s attitude to an idea or object determines what the person thinks, feels and how the person would like to behave towards that idea or object. Therefore, the students’ perception of their teacher’s qualification could influence their attitude towards learning mathematics or any other school subject. Students more often than not, judge their teachers in such areas as the teacher’s knowledge of the subject matter, communication, ability and the choice of appropriate teaching method. A teacher who is rated high on these indices in the perception of the students is likely to enjoy the confidence, respect and admiration of his/her students and vice versa. Teaching of Islamic doctrine and beliefs (aqidah) is a critical issue to give Muslims young generations convincing answers to these world modern challengers. The main objective of teaching Islamic theology should be to reinforce our young Muslims with the intellectual and spiritual weapons that can stand to the onslaught of western ethical globalization. Thus, the greater challenge to Islamic doctrine and beliefs (aqidah) at present is no longer revolving around the theological differences of the past but rather around ideological challenges advocated by western thought such as, positivism, secular humanism, liberalism and post-modernism. These ideologies not only threaten the tenets of Islamic belief but more seriously the Islamic doctrine itself (Fatimah 2005). Therefore, the way we present the Islamic doctrine and beliefs (aqidah) and theology subject need to be revitalise both in its pedagogy of teaching and content knowledge subject matter. The new paradigm of teaching for transferring content knowledge of Islamic theology in Islamic education needs a specific approach and effective methodology. Islamic education stresses the necessity for Muslims to lead all aspects of their lives in the best possible way, both spiritually and practically. For instance, a Muslim has to pray five times a day; pay Zakat (an annual payment made by the rich to the poor); fast during the month of Ramadan; perform Hajj (a pilgrimage to the holy sites of Mecca and Medina) once during his or her lifetime; and demonstrate kindness and tolerance. In other words, Teaching Islamic beliefs (aqidah) in Islamic Education occupies a central place in the everyday life of Muslims. Moreover, the subject often focuses on the past (what happened to early Muslims) rather than the present (what is going on today) (Ahmad, 2000; Farhan, 2000). Furthermore, Islamic Education textbooks suffer from weaknesses in many areas: pupils' needs; motivation; layout and presentation of language; consideration of the pupils' linguistic levels; co-operation between the syllabus and the authors of Islamic Education texts on one hand, and the teachers who apply these textbooks on the other (Al-Naqa, 2009; Alalaoy, 2009). The teaching methods of Islamic Education tend to rely on the promotion of memorisation, recall and rote learning. This is considered to be inadequate if the main aims of Islamic Education are to be achieved (Ahmad Munawwar 2009). The importance of Islamic Education is derived from its major theme the religion of Islam. However, the research findings show that the focus of the teachers is on passing knowledge to the students, with little use of modern methods and aids in teaching. It furthermore showed that many Islamic Education teachers have not mastered the use of teaching aids and they constantly complain of the workload which they must bear and which hinders them from teaching effectively. The number of sessions per week, in the teachers' opinion is not enough to cover the curriculum; yet, the non-availability of teaching aids in school has proved to be a significant discouragement to the use of modern teaching methods (Ahmad Munawwar 2009). Teachers reported that they did not receive any training in using modern teaching methods or aids prior to starting their actual service. There were, in addition, many more factors affecting the teachers' use of modem methods of teaching and limiting their use of helpful teaching aids. An interactive tool introduces new technologies into the educational methodology. It can be used as online applications, providing a positive aid to the learning tasks (Jaime Llorett et. al, 2009. The study will also explore the teachers and students perception towards effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in junior secondary school.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There are a whole lot of negative expressions before school age or getting admission into school, the child psychologically develops fear for a particular subject and comes to the lesson with these bad notions which disassociate learning patterns which are impossible to build upon. It has done a lot of harm to the teaching and learning of any subject. Ale (1989) coined the term “phobia” for the condition that these bad notions lead to. That is, fear followed by low productivity and consequently leads to low academic achievement. For this reason, this paper which is based on a study, examined the extent to which students and teachers perceived factors like teachers qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and students’ attitude towards Islamic studies as factors that influence the teaching and learning of Islamic studies in junior secondary schools. The aim is to educate the new incoming generations on the likely variables perceived to be affecting teaching and learning of Islamic studies resulting to the persistent rate of failure in the subject.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate teachers and students perception towards effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in junior secondary school. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant relationship between teachers and students perception and effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant effect of teachers and students perception on effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be beneficial to students, teachers, Islamic studies instructors, curriculum planners, educational administrators, researchers and textbook authors. To students, the study would help to improve their understanding of Islamic studies and thus adjust properly in the society through active participation in the classroom leaning which stimulate their interest and change the negative perceptions they already have in learning Islamic studies and this invariably help them to develop the affective domain of knowledge in secondary schools. They would equally perform better in internal and external examinations without depending on examination malpractice which have been the problem in the educational sectors. This is because the student stands a chance of becoming masters on their own through involvement in different roles in the classroom. The findings of the study would help teachers to have an insight into the meaning, application and problems of using role play method of teaching and thus change their method when the need arises for proper students’ achievement and interest in Islamic studies in secondary schools. The relevance of effective method in the implementation of Islamic studies in secondary school would be made known to teachers as they are the chief implementer of planned curriculum of schools. This could be done by teachers observing the students performing their roles and equally identifies the individual’s problem in using the method in the teaching and learning of Islamic studies in secondary schools.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to teachers and students perception towards effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies in junior secondary school: case study of Nasarawa L.G.A Kano state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Islamic Studies: It refers to the study of Islam. Islamic studies can be seen under at least two perspectives: 1.From a secular perspective, Islamic studies is a field of academic research whose subject is Islam as religion and civilization. 2. From a traditional Islamic perspective, Islamic studies is an umbrella term for religious sciences ('Ulum al-din) pursued by the ulama.
Teacher: The power to have an effect on people or things, or a person or thing that is able to do this.
Perception: The process by which people translate sensory impressions into a coherent and unified view of the world around them. Though necessarily based on incomplete and unverified (or unreliable) information, perception is equated with reality for most practical purposes and guides human behaviour in general.
Student: A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; pupil.
Learning: Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, or preferences.
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