This study examined the relationship between the teachers’ characteristics as a correlate of learning outcome in science subjects, junior secondary schools in Odeda local government, Ogun State. The problem was expressed in four research questions. Relevant literature on the variables of the study more theoretically and empirically reviewed. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The sample consisted of eighty randomly selected teachers from secondary schools in Odeda local government which was used for data collection. Data obtained was analysed using chi-square statistics and t-test. The result of the analysis showed significant relationship between teachers’ qualifications, teaching experience and age on learning outcome while teachers’ performance is not different based on that. It was suggested among others that appointment of teachers into secondary schools should be based on their professional academic qualifications. Also aptitude test indicating their interest and ability to teach should be conducted.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The importance of education in modern society cannot be over emphasized. Undoubtedly, education is a basic force for the socio-economic and political transformation of society, it is equally a fact that no nation can develop to its fullest and keep pace with trends in science and technology without an effective and efficient educational system.
Countries of the world are categorized as developed and developing on the basic of their technological development. Those that are technologically advanced and described developed while those that are technologically backward are termed developing. Thus, technology seems to be the parameter to yardstick with which development is measured worldwide. For a country to develop technologically there is the need to have a crops of professional teachers and it is through a sound and well articulated science education programme that appropriate skills can be transmitted to youths. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers.
Lassa (1996) noted that education is the mill for the production of much desired professionals e.t.c which Nigerians need to turn the technological backwardness round and usher in the much desired technological renaissance which the society very much need for elevation from a consumer to a producer nation; and from a third world country to a first world country.
There is a very strong need for an effective science education to bridge the ever-widening gap between the technically advanced nations of the worlds and the developing countries such as Nigeria. This technological reformation can be made possible by first initiating a pragmatic science educational programme as the bedrock of development. Thus, without science skills, Nigeria cannot achieve development.
The social concern on education system from poor funding of the entire educational system lack of dedication and apathy on the part of teachers who constitute a key factor in our educational system and the consequences of these is on the performance of students at both internal and external examinations cannot be ignored. In fact, the social concern for teachers characteristic and learning has become a matter of great importance as a result of increasing democratization of education in Nigeria. However, the role definition for the teachers in the school system is not too easily definable in clear terms. Obanya (1990) pointed out that it could be a fallacy to think of teaching process is a cyclic chain of activities and the teacher is the cycle. The NCCE (2003) asserted that no national development can supercedes the quality of its teachers and that teachers hold the key that unlocks the door to modernization. The reason why Nigeria has not attained the height expected of her since independent is because successive governments did not give teaching education the seriousness it deserves.
Hoyle (2006) puts the responsibilities of the teachers as being concentrated in areas of instruction socialization and evaluation. He sees the teachers play the decisive role in pivoting the growth and the direction of education. It is an acceptable fact that a teacher is the most important cog in the educational machine and that teachers are highly instrumental to the success of any educational programme embarked upon by any government. This is because apart from being at the implementation level of any educational policy, the realization of these programmes also depends greatly on teachers dedication and commitment to their work.
As regards western education, the first set of professional teachers in Nigeria was the teacher-catechist or teacher pastor usually employed by the missionaries. Some of them played the combined roles of a teacher, a pastor and even the choir master (Taiwo, 2000). The majority of them had to do was to instruct and drill the children and the knowledge that was considered necessary and of important roles to their later life. Towards the beginning of 20th century however, the Nigeria teacher was expected to play and indeed did play a number of important roles in the society. The teacher characteristics are to be among other things; it has to be the mantle of a lucid communicator, a fair elevator, an adapt manager a strict disciplinarian, a surrogate parent, thus, a teacher should possess certain requisite qualities expected of him. This will help him explicit the best from his students and enjoy a rewarding career too. In order hand, teacher should be someone who knows how to keep the temper in check, with good sense of humor, good time management skills dedicated towards his work, self confidence, a consumer of knowledge, a good listener and good motivator. According to Fafunwa cited in Munimtor (1994) “Nigerian teacher” is expected to be a good citizen; a community leader, an innovator, an enlightened parent and often a reservoir of all knowledge and skill. In most of the Nigerian villages around 1940’s the teachers constituted the enlightened leaders in the society, the society is all too ready to heap expectation from teachers. It is surprising to find that teachers are not usually giving materials rewards and social prestige to teachers. The students they are teaching and their parents did not like them not to talk of respect. In the side of government that employed them did not provide them with the necessary materials and motivations that they deserved. Instead, they are been treated poorly as evidence from:-
- Low wages, when compared with other professionals.
- Low status in the society
- Lack career advancement opportunities.
- High teacher pupil ratio.
- Poor work environment.
- Inadequate fringe benefits; and
- Irregular payment of salaries.
So these conditions are responsible for low teacher moral and the difficulty in attracting and retaining quality personnel into the teaching profession and even the exciting ones the profession did not take it as their primary assignment because they never intended to teach, but took it up for wart of anything better, the antiheros, who have neither the inclination nor the aptitude but just there to make up bodies of staff the trained but disillusioned ones, the part-timers who shared their time between contact work and teaching are merely concerned with covering. “The syllabus” rather than helping the students to learn, the educational system has got to this group or finding means of making them committed to the job. This was aptly started by Famade (1999) when he said “teachers of today” oh! What an exact opposite. The glory, the prestige, the highly held honours of teachers are no more referred, they are no more adore, they are no more emulated, they are not even recognized anymore. Students no longer catch cold with sneezes of teachers. The teachers of nowadays rather catch cold when the students sneeze how time changes. In Nigeria, the practice was for the employers of labours usually, the government to motivate workers through monetary rewards. But experience has shown that the results of this monetary inducement are largely unsatisfactory. This is not to suggest, however, that money is not important in raising employees’ output level.
However, more than money, what is needed is a better image or prestige for the profession. But this is not helpful by the existence of teachers who by the nature of things are not and cannot be committed to their jobs, when teachers were dissatisfied, discontented and lacked commitment to their jobs, the academic performance of their students will be adversely affected. Teachers would therefore continue to desert the classrooms for other more lucrative jobs as long as their conditions remained poor. The effects of all these would not only be adverse on the school in which the teachers work but more on the students they teach and on the organization which employed them.
The school as an organization is established to achieve such goals and objectives as academic, social, economic and administrative. All their goals are related and often vital for the overall existence of the educational system.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years it has been observed that there is deterioration in student learning as evidence in the abysmal performance in public examinations. A lot of factors have been identified as responsible for this poor performance. Some of these factors are intelligence, environment, personality of individuals’ curriculum and factors related to examination. However, it is being suggested that these factors are not sufficient enough for poor academic performance and poor learning outcome. It should be noted that the place of teacher in student learning outcome cannot be over emphasized, thus, it is assumed that the characteristics of teachers play significant role in learning outcome of student. It is as result of this that this study sought to investigate teachers’ characteristics in relation to student learning outcome in science subjects.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This study was embarked on upon to examine the relationship between teachers characteristics and teachers job performance in government technical college of Lagos state. Specifically,
1. Examined the relationship between teacher academic professional qualification and learning outcome.
2. Determine the influence of professional experience of teacher on learning outcome.
3. Ascertain gender difference in teacher’s job performance and learning outcome.
4. Determine the extent to which teacher’s age affect learning outcome.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This study attempted to provide answers to the following questions;
1. What is the relationship between teachers’ academic professional qualifications and learning outcome?
2. Does the teacher’s professional experience influence learning outcome.
3. Is there any gender difference in teacher’s job performance and learning outcome?
4. How do teachers age affect learning outcome of students.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The findings of this study will be of interest not to the government and educator, but also to productivity specialists. To the teachers, it will afford them the opportunity to appreciate the need for further education, so as to improve the quality instructions given in the school system.
It will also enable the school, education district office, ministries of education as well as government to understand and appreciate the teacher’s characteristics vis-a-vis performance. This will in turn enable the government and the shareholders in the educational system to work out strategies aimed at improving absenteeism, turnover rate thereby increasing organizational effectiveness.
To the individual, knowledge of the forces that hinder and promote teacher’s job performance might bring greater happiness and improve efficiency at work. And finally, it is hoped that this study will contribute to proper understanding of teachers characteristics vis-à-vis their job performance and it will be of immense help to human resources managers as a whole who are connected with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, induction, orientation, training development performance approval, transfer, promotion, demotion e.t.c thereby improving level of performance in the educational institutions.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
The focus of this study is science subjects in junior secondary schools in Odeda where teacher characteristics will be analyzed with a view to examining how it affect their performance and learning outcome.
1.7 OPERATIONNAL DEFINITON OF TERMS
In this study, the following terms were defined operationally as follows:
This refers to teacher’s total workload at any given time in the teaching-learning process. This will include all this teaching period as well as other co-curricular duties that are official assigned to him by the school authority.
This refers to the highest academic attainment of the teachers.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS