1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The educational sector has contributed immensely to the development of society and the individual which cannot be underrated that is why all countries in the world perceive education as a tool for the advancement of both individual and national development. This developmental tenet is suffixed within the education policy documents of Nigeria (The Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013). This might seems to be accountable for various stakeholders’ concern in education regarding the perceived problems that are likely to affect it furthermore because the implications such problems could have on the management and administration of education. As perceived by Fakunle (172) and Babalola (128) the aspects of such problems includes intentional absenteeism of teachers, nonchalant attitude of teachers towards students, teachers’ ineffectiveness and disconnectedness between students and their teachers. There is therefore an urgent need to really inspect the future of our nation’s education and the challenges ahead, with a view to achieving effectiveness, quality and relevance within the entire system to be able to follow the international standards. By discussing the challenges ahead, managers and administrators, including teachers of secondary schools, must be remember their massive task and be able to provide solutions to the problems currently threatening the system. In many studies, there is a certain reciprocal relationship between student – teacher relationship and academic performance. However, so far, this relationship has not been fully explored, such as how student – teacher relationship affects academic performance and whether academic performance restricts student – teacher relationship and so on (Košir & Tement, 142). For a long time, students have gradually formed and maintained two kinds of social relations in school education, namely, peer relationship and student – teacher relationship. The former is basically in line with the development of academic performance in later childhood (Ryan et al., 184), while the latter has a profound impact on the physical and mental development of students (Liao, 15). Recent educational psychology research has also shown that in school adjustment, teacher-student relationships are often intertwined with students’ academic performance (Furrer & Skinner, 161).The success and or failure of any educational system, whether in developed or developing nations of the world, depends to a large extent on the teachers, because they form the hub of the educational system. It is further argued by Ekundayo, Omodan & Omodan (218) that education itself can rarely rise above the quality of its teachers. There is therefore no doubt that the services of teachers in schools are indispensable and critical to the nation’s future and the kind of individuals that society wants. The quality of the future citizens of a country depends on the quality, competence and practices of the teachers. The application of positive classroom pedagogy is therefore critical. This is corroborated by the argument of Okolocha & Onyeneke (171) that one of the most important aspects of secondary schools is the application of pedagogical knowledge into a classroom-oriented plan of action, which constitutes the most essential fabric upon which the success of the school, its administration, and the entire democratic and pedagogical process rests upon. The application of classroom pedagogy could only be achieved in an environment and atmosphere where the learners are free to interact within themselves and their teachers, in other words in situations where there is an interactive relationship between students and between students and teachers. In the National Policy on Education, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013), states that the aim of teaching and learning should be to produce conscientious, highly motivated and efficient classroom activities for all levels of education in Nigeria; to help in encouraging the spirit of enquiry and creativity in both teachers and students; this will also help them to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objectives; it will provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to any changing situation; and also to enhance teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession, not only in Nigeria, but also applicable in the wider world. Despite the stated teaching and learning objective to ensure effective classroom activities, the reverse is the reality. It appears as if student engagement in classroom activities and student motivation for better productivity in secondary schools in Nigeria are still far from expected. This is supported by the observations of Falade (278) and Faremi & Jita (148) that scarcity of motivation techniques in teaching and learning process is probably accountable for the perceived teacher and student ineffectiveness.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Student success is at the heart of the educational enterprise. School success helps students to meet long-term personal and career goals and provides a range of monetary, psychosocial, and physical benefits (Baum & Ma, 127). The research studies revealed that various psycho-social factors are responsible for scholastic failure of students, such as low socio-economic background, student’s psychosocial factors, cognitive abilities, school related factors, environment of the home, or the support given by the parents and other family members (Khan & Malik, 199; Fan, 56; Gonzalez- Pienda, Nunez, Gonzalez Pumariega, Alvarez, Roces and Garcia, 202). It is said that no nation can exceedingly grow above the quality of its teachers and students. It is with respect to this that a lot of emphasis is placed on the improvement of the relationship between the teachers and students utilized by any school in any society. Despite all the efforts made towards the improvement of the relationship between the students and teachers, there are still poor teachers and student’s relationship in academic performance. The alarming rate of low academic self-efficacy and eventual low academic performance constitutes a great concern to parents, teachers, examination bodies, counsellors, psychologists and colleges. Indeed, it represents a great wastage on the parts of students, parents and the government. Parents, adult family members, teachers and peer groups contribute significantly to various components of personality of the students particularly in improving his/her academic performance (Considine and Zappala, 132). The data from some schools show that, most students academic performance are very low which is below average grade of most of the schools. The researcher would therefore like to investigate the relationship between selected psychosocial variable and academic performance of students, what are the factors militating against poor teachers and students relationship in academic performance in some selected schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council with specific reference to student- teacher interaction on academic performance of students.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of student’s teacher’s academic performance in schools in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no effect of student’s teacher’s relationship on academic performance in secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant effect of student’s teacher’s relationship on academic performance in secondary schools.
H0: There is no significant relationship between students-teacher relationship and student’s academic performance in secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant relationship between students-teacher relationship and student’s academic performance in secondary schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A major concern in schools is to increase student achievement. The study is therefore significant for the following reasons;
The findings of this study will be of tremendous use for secondary schools, Staff, students, educational administrators, Ministries of Education, researchers and the entire academic community. It will be useful to ministry of Education for adequate provision of infrastructure, books and social welfare packages of staff and students of secondary schools.
This study will be useful to both teachers and students who may want to know the factors that could make or mar students’ academic performance.
It is also useful for institutions to enhance teacher-student relationship through professional development and monitoring.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on effect of student’s teacher’s academic performance in some selected schools in Nigeria in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Abuja F.C.T.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Management: Is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees (or of volunteers) to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources.
Academic: Relating to schools, colleges, and universities, or connected with studying and thinking, not with practical skills.
Performance: The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS