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Project Topic:

THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON PRE-PRIMARY AND PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN’S ACADEMICS PERFORMANCE IN ABEOKUTA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 63 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   1,678 people found this useful

Project Department:

EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

Project Body:

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The number of Nigerians who use technology to enhance the lives increases daily. Most Nigerians either own or have access to a computer. Technology dramatically shapes and is an integral part of the business, medical, media and entertainment fields.

In the workface, computer technology assists individuals in the completion of daily tasks as well as provides support for more complex jobs duties. Individuals communicate through e-mail and blackberry phones.

In the 21st century, technology is by far the most powerful means of communication. Information can be obtained rapidly, even instaneously. Shields and Behrman (2000) support the claims that computer technology is rapidly transforming our society. In today’s technologically enhanced society, children are in a computer generation. “They are growing up with technology all around them and from an early age have an understanding of how to use computer.”

Prensky (2001), educational author, noted that the average primary students have spent less than 5,000 hours of his/her life reading, yet he/she has spent over 10,000 hours playing video games and 20,000 hours watching television. The National School Board Association (2007) reported teens engage in social networking almost as much as they watch television. Marc Prensky (2001) stated”our students have changed rapidly. Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” Murdock (2005) agreed with Prensky when he stated that today’s generation and future generation will never know a word without ubiquitous broadband internet access”.

Excessive unmonitored use of computers, especially when combined with use of other screen technologies, such as television, video games, can place children at risk for harmful effects on their physical, social, and psychological development. Children need physical activity, social interaction, and the love and guidance of caring children to be healthy, happy and productive.

Too much time in front of a screen can deprive children of time for organized sports and other social activities that are beneficial to child development. In addition, children may be exposed to violent, sexual or commercial content beyond their years, with long-term negative effects. To ensure healthy and appropriate use of computers both at school and at home, children’s computer time must be limited and their exposure to different types of content must be supervised.

Children who spend an excessive amount of time in front of computers and other screens are likely to be displacing activities required for healthy development and increasing their risk of obesity. In addition, children’s increased computer time could expose them to harmful impacts on their eyes, backs, and wrists. Although the number of studies documenting the relationship between children’s computer use and such harmful effects is limited, such studies taken together with findings on the effects of other media on children and findings on the effect of computer use on children, suggest that the risks of excessive computer use can be significant.

Excessive computer use may also affect children’s social development. By the age of about seven years, a child’s interactions with family, peers, schools, community networks, and media all play an important role in the development of interpersonal skills and social competence. Computers are now part of that mix and concerns have been raised that children who form electronic friendships instead human friendships might be hindered by reports that among children ages 8 to 16, some 20% have computers and 11% have internet access in their bedrooms, which suggests that a sizable number of children may use computer in social isolation. In addition to the extent of time, the types of activities children engage in which using computers can also affect their intellectual, social, and psychological well-being. The allure of computers stems from the fact that they can be used for a wide range of purposes, although 1998 census data indicated children were still using computers primarily to play games and to run stand-alone software, their use of internet is increasing rapidly.

The effects of computer use vary significantly by the type of activity and the quality of content, the experience of children playing violent computer games, are quite different from those playing educational games, the experiences of children visiting informative, nonprofit websites are quite different from those logging on to sites sponsored by media conglomerates and toy companies.

Maton, Bennett and Kervin(2008) characterized today’s generation as “Optimistic, team oriented achievers who are talented with technology. Technology advocates Prensky(2001), Tapscott (2009) asserted that not only have our students changed but the skills and knowledge they need to possess for their future has changed as well.

The partnership for 21st century skills identifies the kills students need to attain. They asserted that students need to be creators, innovators, critical thinkers, problem solvers, communicators and collaborators.

The National School Boards Association (2007) included leadership skills and technological proficiency as essential 21st century learning tools. The international society for technology in education (ISTE) (2009) identified the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS-A and NET-S) and performance indicators for administrators and students. The NETS-A included providing a visionary leadership, digital age learning culture, excellence in professional practice, systematic improvement, and digital citizenship. The NETS-S called for teachers to facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity, design and develop digital age learning experience and assessments model digital citizenship and responsibility and engage in professional growth and leadership. (ISTE, NETS, 2010) no longer should our students sit passively in the classroom while their teacher lectures.

Tap Scott (2009) explained that educators must prepare today’s students for changes by the time students are senior in college 50% of what they learned freshman year will no longer be relevant. Speaking of an earlier generation John Dowey stated, “If we teach today’s students as we taught yesterday’s we rob them tomorrow”. Vygostsky and Bruner claimed that students have to construct their knowledge. Jukes and Dosja (2004) learning pyramid illustrated educators perception regarding students learning as they found that students retain 5% of what they hear, 10% of what they read, 30% from demonstration, 50% of what they discuss, 75% of what they practice, and 95% of what they apply and teach others. Sprenger (2010) explained that individuals brains will not retain 90% of the information they receive, consider the vast amount of information that bombards on individual in a single day. The National School Association (2007) found that 96% of students with internet access engage in some aspect of social net-working, their study found that 60% of the students use social net-work. Students used social networking to discuss educational topics and 50% use it for school work, students used social networking to: past massages, share music, videos and photos, blog, design websites and create content.

Davis (2008) explained that the nonconformist is a new label that has emerged for the learner who creates and designs content using technology. Social networking could be a great educational tool: however, as Sprenger (2010) noted most school systems prohibit access to social networking sites. Prensky (2001), Murdock (2005) believed the traditional lecture and listen classroom is losing today’s learners especially the nonconformist. Sprenger (2010) reported that current brain research indicates that technology has changed the way our students’ brains are developing. As school systems across the nation are implementing 21st century classrooms funds are being used to support the technological initiative. The call for increased technology is not being implemented at the same rate and pace throughout the country.

Further research examines the implement of technology in the classroom and its effect on student academic performance needs to be performed. Educators will benefit from research that determines how technology affects student academic performance and learn ways to implement them.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Prensky (2008) claimed that technology has changed the way today’s student learns. The implementation and access to technology varies greatly among school systems. The problem was that the lack of access to and use of technology in education is placing our students at a disadvantage and not meeting the educational needs of today’s digital natives.

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study was to discover the effect of technology on pre-primary and primary school children’s academic performance. The study took place in various schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area, Ogun State, In order to concentrate and have a good result about the topics. The schools are namely below:

Ø  Kenny’s Kiddie’s Nursery and Primary School

Ø  Vivanis Model School

Ø  Shokem Nursery and Primary School

Ø  Nathaniel Memorial Nursery and Primary School

Ø  Blessed Assurance Nursery and Primary School

1.4       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is limit to primary schools in Abeokuta South Local Government Area, Ogun State and only concerns the private nursery and primary level institutions.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The results of the study have the potential to influence the appropriation of state education agencies and school systems funds in the area of professional development and technology.

In addition to the utilization of funds, the results could influence state standards, curriculum guides, and the inclusion of technology. Positive results from the study will lead school districts that prohibit access to technology to rethink their present technology policies. If the study finds there was not a statistically relationship between technology and student achievement, educators still need to identify ways to tie instruction to the constant changing technologies available to today’s learners. It is the responsibility of educators to prepare students for the world outside of school including technological use.

1.6       RESEAERCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS

o   For the purpose of this study, the following research questions are formulated,

o   Is technology a tool to develop child’s mentality?

o   Does technology really help in developing child physical appearance, social appearance, and moral appearance?

o   Does technology develop character in children?

o   What are the relevant of technology to children?

o   To what extent has technology helped children and also affect children academic performance?

o   Does technology impede academic performance on pupils?

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Technology: This refers to the collection of tools, including machinery, modifications,

arrangements and procedures used by humans.

Academics Performance: This is the outcome of education i.e. the extent to which a student,

teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.

Nonconformist: This refers to a person who uses technology creatively, inquisitively. The nonconformists are the leaders in producing and editing online content.

Ubiquitous: Existing or being everywhere, especially at the same time.

Allure: this may refers to the power to attract, the quality causing attraction.

Power point: Presentation software used for instructional purposes.

Whiteboard: Is a non-electronic variation of the traditional blackboard and can be written on with colored erased markers.

Instructional technology: “The theory and practice of design, development, utilization management, and evaluation of process and resources for learning”.

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