The study examined the effect of divorce on the academic achievement of students. The design of this study was “Survey type. Data were collected from five schools and were randomly selected from Abeokuta South local government area of Ogun State. A total number of Hundred (100) questionnaire were administered to Female and Male student of different age-grades, JSS 2-JSS3 were used as a sample. Questionnaire was closed ended likert-type technique that expressed degree of agreement or disagreement with the supplied statement. This research project finds out the negative effects of divorce on the students behaviour and academic achievement. Data was analyzed using simple percentage. Findings from the study according to the research showed that misunderstanding between husband and wife could lead to divorce; lack of parental advice during adolescent might leads to student poor academic achievement; student from the amicable settle of dispute or misunderstanding among the couple will lead to fewer cased of divorce in the society; keeping distance from the various in-laws will reduce misunderstand and divorce among couples. Finally, the researcher recommended that in order to discourage the habit of divorce in the society, spouse for advised to keep fathers and mother-in-laws brothers and sister-in-laws should learn to talk it over with themselves in order to hold firmly unto their marriage.
1.1 Background of the Study
Marriage is universal institution known all over the world. It is a legal union of a man and a woman. Marriage can also be called matrimony or Wedlock. It is a socially or recognized union or legal contract between spouses that established right and obligations between each other, their children their in-law and their relatives. Marriage was designed by God to meet the problem of loneliness marriage is meant to last till death, even after death because some of the surviving children of the spouses still retain the name of their dead parent. (Hargreaves 2002). Divorce is the legal procedure by which marriage can be formally ended. Divorce according to Wadlerstain (2003) is the termination of a re-organizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country and/or state. Oxford learners dictionary (2001) defines divorces as the legal ending of a marriage.
Divorce is now a common situation whereby couples no longer finds their union compatible and consequently separate. In most cases, student from this type of home suffer a great set back. A situation where either of the parents is not with their children, many affect the upbringing of the children; most children born by divorce couple as a result of disjointed training of trouble parents (Owusu 2007). It is important to remember that, as divorces rates continue to increase, so does the likelihood that children of divorced parents may have greater risk adjusting in areas of social relations, self concept, bahaviour/conduct and psychological adjustment; according to Amanto and Keith (cited in vandervalk 2005).
Hargreaves (2000) opined that children from one parents families may have more difficulties adapting their behaviours to teacher expectation than student from two parents household. Teacher reported negative behavioural changes in two thirds of the student after divorce. These changes consisted of an increase in impatience, in attentiveness, unhappiness, lack of concentration are noticed by their teachers. According to Wallerstein and Corbin cited in Dykeman (2003), when children experience divorce, they may also experience a significant impact upon their school performance. Some children may experience Long-lasting emotional effect into their adulthood that damage their ability to preserve relationship H “Hatherington” (cited in Hargreaves, 2001) children may experience mood change anger and frustration while at school and children from divorcedparent may be more disorderly in class, have less proficiency in study habits and be absent more frequently than children from two parents, families. Amato (Cited in Hargreaves 2009) suggested that children in one parent family may have more household to their stress level than children from two parent families. The result of parental divorce shapes children emotionally and may impact self-esteem, future relationships, dating and marriage (Simons cited in Dykeman 2003).
Also Hetherington (cited in Hargreaves 2001), indicated children who have behaviour problems in the classroom tend to show less quality work in the class-room and have more unfinished home-work assignment. Hetherington further found children in a single-parent family may be likely to underachieve due to the family.
Divorce is one of the most terrible thing that have affected the life of many children in our society today, even parents also will be seen in the life of those couple that are not happily married, they will be emotionally unstable isolated, lack of self confidence and emotionally self sufficient. Therefore, this project attempt to examined the causes of divorce in contemporary family and it effect on academic in achievement of student who oftentimes as a possible alternative strategies at solving this problem to enhance unity and harmony in the institution of marriage.
1.2 Types of Marriage
There are four known types of marriage.
Marriage according to Fadeiye (2005). Include:
· Traditional Marriage: This is sometimes called customary marriage. This type of marriage has been existence before the advent of Europeans in Africa. Traditional marriage in Nigeria varies from one ethnic group to another. Among the Kanuri ethnic group particularly in Borno and Adamawa States. Traditional form of marriage include marriage, woman marriage, coursing marriage, and gift marriage. In Yoruba land in the old days for instance, traditional marriage was essentially polygamous because of agricultural practice. Again accumulation of wives was regarded as a way of assessing the social prestige of an average Yoruba man. The same practice is applicable to many other Nigerian ethnicgrouped (Fadeiye 2005). Traditional marriage especially in Yoruba land does not take place without adequate preparation. When a man reaches the age of puberty, the parent wouldengage the services of an intermediary called (a laring in Yoruba language to carry out a thorough investigation regarding the family of the would be bride of their son. If the outcome of the investigations is satisfactory, the relatives of the bridegroom would approach the parent of the would be bride through an intermediary and the contact is done early in the morning. The parent of the bride would also carry out a similar investigations concerning the family of the bridegroom. Many other steps are take before marriage takes place like Isihun (meaning opening of the voice) by which the parent of the bride accept to give their daughter to the bridegroom. The Idana (carrying the bride wealth materials to the marriage ceremony. Yoruba custom does not expect the husband to be at home during the wife’s arrived at her husband’s house. On getting to the compound of the feet of the wife and she will be carried into the husband’s house. The lifting of the bride into the house of her husband is called Igbeyawo in Yoruba language. In some customs in Nigeria including that of the Yoruba young girls may be bet rothed before puberty and virginity is held in high esteem. (Sobola & Lijadu 2011).
· Court Marriage or Ordinance Marriage: This type of marriage is foreign. It was introduce by the Europeans. Such as marriage take place in the registry of a court of law. The bride and bridegroom must be above 18 years old and if they are under the age of 18 years, their parent must be consent to the marriage before it become legal. The couple must file a notice of 21 days before the marriage is contracted. Under ordinance marriage, neither the husband nor the wife is allowed to remarry or marry other person when both of them are still alive and the former marriage has not been dissolved. Whoever does that commits bigamy which is punishable under the law (Sobola & Lijadu 2011)
· Christian Marriage: In this type of marriage, the man and the woman are jointed together as husband and wife by a pastor or a reverend father. Christian marriage was introduce by European missionaries. The marriage ceremony takes place in a church, and it involves public exchange of marital vows between the man and the woman, after which they both of sign the wedding rings assymbols of love and trust (Sobola and Lijadu 2011).
· Islamic or MuslimMarriage: This type of marriage was introduced into Nigeria, by the Arabs. This type of marriage is conducted according to Islamic tenets. The holy Quran gives certain conditions to be fulfilled before such as a marriage could be authentic. The girl to be married must give her consent, dowry must be paid, parent and guardians must sanction the marriage and the marriage must be publicized. The Imam or learned Mallam conducts the ceremony according to the tent of the Holy Quran and Hadith. Muslim marriage is polygamous in natures as it permits a man to marry up to four wives on the condition that, he shall treat them fairly and equally with regard to feeding, clothing and love (Sobalola and Lijadu 2011).
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The impact of parents on children cannot be over emphasized. However, in Nigeria today it has been observed that, there are high increase of divorce in modern society and this is caused by the basis of love and co-operation that has being removed between the couples for different reason.
This has led the researchers to embark on this with the view to find the root causes of these problem.
Throughout the world, marriage is regarded as a moment of celebration and a milestone in adult life. Sadly, in this form discussion makes clear; the practice of early marriage gives no such causes for celebration. All too often the imposition of a marriage partner upon a child means that a girls or boy’s childhood is cut short and their fundamental rights are compromised. We have encountered the phenomena of childhood is cut short and there fundamental right are compromise. We have uncounted the phenomena of child marriage and early marriage on numerous occasion. While much of the impact remain hidden, it absolutely clear that millions of children and young people particularly girls suffer negative consequence.
This discussion looks at the reason for the perpetuation of early marriage, and its possible increase in population under stress.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to:
Find out the effect of divorce on the academic achievement of students in Nigeria society
1. Examine the causes of divorce after marriage
2. Find out the attitude of couple toward marriage
3. Determine the role of parents in marriage
4. It is also to expose the causes of divorce after marriage so that the couple will understand the effects of divorce, in order to live in peace and harmony.
5. This study will also make the couple understand that, marriage is not what they can take with levity hand in order to avoid divorce.
1.5 Research Question
1. What are the possible causes of divorce?
2. What is the level of effect on academic achievement of student?
3. What is the cititude of the parent towards children who are left after divorce?
4. What are the solution t the causes of divorce?
1.6 Significant of the Study
i. 1this research work is carrying out in order to expose the young couple to the effect of divorce on the academic achievement of children.
ii. It will also enlighten those who have not married to know how to live in peace and harmony when they get married in order to avoid divorce.
iii. It will be a source of information for couples and also be a basis for further research
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research study focuses on the effect of divorce on the academic achievement of student in some selected school in Abeokuta south Local government of ogun state and the schools is made comprehensive high schoolIgbesa, in Abeokuta South? Nawar-un-deen High School, Oke-Ijeun, Anglican High School Quarry, Abeokuta Girls Grammar school Abeokuta and Asero High School
1.8 Definition of Terms
Divorce: Marriage Instability/permanent break down of marriage
Academic: Relating to schools or connected with studying and thinking not with practical
Achievement: Something that you did or get after planning and working to make it happen, and that therefore gives you a feeling of satisfaction.
Student: A person who is studying at a school college or university.
Marriage: Marriage is the formal of a man and a woman as husband and wife
Family: Family is the basic units of society which arises from marriage
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