This study is on the effect of teacher’s teaching methods and the use instructional materials on the academic performance of pupils in primary school in teaching Yoruba Language. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of teaching methods appropriate for teaching Yoruba Language and Teacher’s attitude towards using teaching aids how it affects teachers teaching effectiveness in primary school.
Results revealed that teaching methods are necessary for effective teaching and learning of Yoruba Language, it also indicate that there are specific information realized to assist the pupils academic performance in Yoruba Language.
The questionnaire was used to collect necessary information which was analysed with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency table and percentage based on the above observation, it was recommended that government should employ adequate qualified Yoruba teacher for the primary schools and provide enough teaching materials for schools generally and primary schools in particular. Also to train the teacher to –to-be, the effective know-how as regards handling the teaching aid(s) appropriately, Yoruba teachers should make use f appropriate teaching methods to aid effective teaching and learning of Yoruba Language and also parents should speak Yoruba Language with children at home.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the report of Adunola (2011), method can be regarded as approach to institution. It is a means through which the teacher decides to impact knowledge on the students Dele (1982), defined method of teaching as ways, techniques and ideas of imparting knowledge to student at any level.
Abdulhamid, (2009) is of the view that methods of teaching are the baseline of actions, instruments adopted by the teacher to ensure the delivery effectives teaching and learning process. Methods of teaching structurally determines how the teacher would handle the process of lesson during teaching, what he should do, where and when he should perform a particular task.
Teaching according to Oladipo and Ayeni (2000), involves bringing about or at least enable desirable changes in learners However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the field of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. Brown (1997) it is the learners who need to be more commitment to learn. A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instructing the learners.
Teaching methods can be described as the way of achieving learning outcome the selection of teaching methods is dependent on the learners and the characteristics of the learning situation the chosen teaching method or methods should best support the attainment of best learning outcomes through instructions given by the teachers, Abdullahi (2004).
Institutional materials have a greater role to play in day to day running activities of schools especially primary school setting. The use of instructional materials is very essential for the pupils not forget the topic of the lesson they will surely remember the practical things that the guide of instructional materials.
Researchers have shown that many of our schools today especially primary schools little or no instructional materials. These facilities will make the lesson to be simple and easy for the pupils to comprehend. For instance, a school that takes music as part of the subjects should have instructional materials like tambourine, beat, key-board, e.t.c.
1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHING METHODS
Mishra (2007) highlighted the following teaching methods characteristic:
i. It develops the reasoning skill of the students.
ii. It helps the teacher to solve a problem, or do thinking and analytical activity in the class.
iii. It helps the teacher to check or evaluate student’s progress.
iv. It brings reality in teaching; for example in excursion teaching method.
v. It develops social skills, communication skills and team spirit.
vi. It creates motivating and creativity.
vii. It develops the teacher and the student’s intellect.
viii. It makes subject meaningful to the students.
ix. It gives complete freedom and choice to students.
x. It extends the student’s vocabulary in role play method of teaching.
1.2.1 TYPE OF TEACHING METHODS
Jossey (2004), stated the following types teaching method:
- Inductive method
This is a technique in teaching in which the teacher moves from particular examples to a general rule. In this method particular examples are examined and through this examination a general rule is established. This rule may be a definition, a statement of fact, a formula or theory. This method expects the teachers to proceed from the known to unknown, from concrete to abstract until a general rules is arrived at.
- Deductive method
In this method the procedure is from the general to the particular. It begins with a general rule or definition or formula which is applied to particular cases or examples. A general rule may be stated or a formula may be given or definition may be given.
- Role playing method.
This method is a method teaching in the primary school involves pupils acting out real situations in the society, This method helps pupils to understand situations better and enables them to solve their daily problems.
- Discussion method
Is a teaching method which is important to ensure that pupils understand a concept at the primary school levels.
- The Group method
The group method discussed here is that by which a class is divided into smaller segments. A class of thirty-five pupils may be put into five groups. In this case the teacher’s role is more of a supervisor.
He does general teaching first and explains clearly what each group is going to do.
- The lecture method.
As the name implies this is the method in which the teacher lectures. He addresses a whole class or a large number of pupils at a time. He describes and explains a topic to the class. It is the most general method of teaching.
- Questioning method
This method was first employed in teaching by a Greek philosopher and teacher called Socrates. He taught people by questioning them on what they said they knew. The method involves asking of carefully framed questions aimed at loading students to find out facts for themselves and do critical thinking.
- Activity method
This is the method whereby children are given a piece of work to do and they learn at the same time. The method also involves the acting of plays or dramatization. The activity method is concomitant with the play way method. It is a suitable method for all classes and for all subjects.
Lar (1997) also examined some teaching method:
· Demonstration method
This method resembles lecture method in the sense that the teacher is the doer and the students are passive observes. A demonstration can be presented to a large audience and a great number of points can be covered within a short time.
· Lecture method
Lecture method appears to be of the widely used methods by classroom teachers. The assumption underlying the method is that the teacher has knowledge and that the teacher can give this knowledge to the students. The key to success in the use of this method is organizing and planning. It has an advantage of presenting a large number of facts in a short period of time. One major criticism of the method is that the students are often passive participants.
· Inquiry method
One distinguishing feature of inquiry method is the permission it grants the students to think for themselves. In a classroom where this method is employed, students are encourage to ask questions, analyze, disagree with, and occasionally to depart from what others (teachers and parents) think is true, good, best or appropriate.
· Eclectic method
Basic to the eclectic method is the belief that there is no single best method adequate for all situations. This method therefore seeks to incorporate all that is good in all known methods of teaching depending on the teachers ability.
· Textbook method
Textbooks provide for many students the situation in which learning takes place. Teacher should see the textbooks as aids to help accomplish the teaching mission, he should therefore use textbooks creatively.
· Case study method
The primary objective of this method is to encourage the development of analytical approach in solving problems. One advantage of this method is that it provides for healthy competition and suggested solutions can prompt a further discussion of the cases.
· Field Trips methods
This method involves taking students on excursions or educational visit. The educational objectives of this visits are clearly spelt out. Through field trips specific attitudes, skills and concepts may be developed.
· The project method
The method is designed to encourage students to identify a task. With the guidance of teacher and carry out such a task to its logical conclusion. There are individual and group projects. The individual projects are those that involves particular student and the group project are the responsibility of different groups.
· The story Telling method
Nwosu (1984), the story appears to be accessible to many teachers. It’s a simple technique of teaching which involves passing across same messages through medium of a verbally narrated or parable.
When using a story telling method, it is important that the teacher should have a clear objective in mind for telling the story.
· Discovery method
The essence of this method is that students are encourage to find out things for themselves. This way they learn through their own effort under the guidance of the teacher.
This method is similar to project method.
· Team Teaching method
This method as the name implies entails the collaboration of two or more teachers in teaching a given topic.
· Deductive/ inductive Teaching method
This methods of teaching go hand in hand. Deductive teaching refers to the technique of presenting learners with a general principle or hypothesis.
Inductive teaching on the other hand is the process by which learners are guided to examine related cases and situations so as to identify commonalities between and among them.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to know the effect of teacher’s teaching method and the use of instructional materials in teaching Yoruba language on the Academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Many of the method discussed in the first section of this chapter have relevance to teaching Yoruba language.
The following teaching methods are suggested: Discussion method, role playing method, field trip method, Questioning method and story telling method.
The features, advantages and disadvantages of these methods in terms of their application to Yoruba language will be highlighted in the next chapter.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Different methods of teaching exist in education. All the strategies in their bid is to disseminate knowledge.
However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate teaching method in Yoruba language at primary school level.
Also school methods used in Yoruba teaching the primary school pupils in Yoruba language are not effective and this negate their academic performance.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focused mainly on five (5) different teaching methods-discussion method, Role playing method, field trip method, Questioning method and story telling method.
Moreover, their effectiveness in assisting pupils to learn and understand Yoruba language in classroom situation was looked into. The study is meant for all Yoruba Teachers and students in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state.
However, due to time and fund, the research was limited to some selected primary schools in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state, some Yoruba teachers and students were randomly selected.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
* Are the students interested in Yoruba language as a subject?
* Are there any teaching method’s suitable for teaching Yoruba language?
* Are those teachers teaching Yoruba language really qualified for the job?
What are the factors militating against the performance of pupils in Yoruba language?
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will provide basis for effective teaching methods by primary school teachers to modify or reinforce pupils’ academic performance in Yoruba language as a subject.
The following significance of this study include:
· It will promote the pupil’ interest in learning about the culture and attitudes of Yoruba in schools.
· It will help to encourage teachers and enlighten them on the importance of the use of instructional materials in teaching Yoruba language.
· It will help to know the type of teaching method to teach Yoruba language.
· It will help to know the attitudes of teacher towards using teaching aids instructional materials.
Through learning of Yoruba language in schools the pupils can became a professional in the language in future, like Yoruba writer, lecturer in Yoruba department, broadcaster in Yoruba language e.t.c.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to primary schools in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun state. The limitation is as a result of inadequate time, materials, fund and human resources.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teaching methods: In the study it implies the principles and methods of instruction.
· Method: is a ways presenting or doing something, especially in a systematic way, it means an orderly logical arrangement (usually in step )
· Instructional materials: These are materials used to expedite or assist the teacher and the learner in the learning and teaching process.
· Academic performance: It refers to how pupils deal with their studies and how they cope with different tasks given to them by their teachers.
Pupils: In this study it refers to children who are learning in the primary level of education, they are between the age of 5-11 years.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS