1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning involves the acquisition of new knowledge, ideas, skills, values and experiences which enable the individual to modify and or alter his actions (NTI Manual, 2016). Learning is a gradual process and presenting any learning concept to learners must be done to appeal to pupils of varied interests and abilities -moving from the known to the unknown and encouraging active class participation. The teacher cannot be said to have achieved his instructional objectives until there is the desired change in the pupils’ behaviour. The teacher is therefore expected to use instructional materials to make the learner learn profitably. Abdu-Raheem (2016) defines instructional materials as essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers efficiency and improve pupils’ performance. Isola (2010) defines instructional materials as objects or devices that assist teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. This means that they serve as a guide to the teaching and learning processes through the logical and sequential preparation and presentation of lessons. Instructional materials can be collectively said to be all the things that are used to support, facilitate, influence or encourage acquisition of knowledge, competency and skill (Abiodun-Oyebanji and Adu 2007). Instructional materials therefore are those things that a teacher or the learner uses in the course of teaching/learning to make learning simple, easy to understand, aid retention and recall whenever it is necessary. Instructional materials can be divided into three major categories based on their sensory appeal, namely; audio, visual and audio-visual. Audio instructional materials are those that appeal to the auditory sense such as radio, audio tapes. Visual instructional materials appeal to the sense of sight and they come in the form of pictures, prints, real objects (models), CDs to mention but a few. Audio-visuals appeal to both the auditory and visual senses of the learner and stimulate interest to learn. Such materials take the form of films, television, audio-visual tapes, CDs, VCDs, DVDs and other high definition electronic devices. ICT has delivered several packages that can aid teaching and learning to achieve desirable learning objectives. These packages are found in mobile devices like smart phones, personal computers, internet facilities and the likes. ICTs provide a lot of learning experiences to learners with varied interest and capabilities. Pictorial illustrations are valuable assets. Projected visuals are able to convey information and specific experiences that are needed for the development of workable concepts. Films can modify motivations, interest, attitude and opinions. Relia (real objects) or three-dimensional models can be effective in teaching/learning as the learner learns a great deal by examining and manipulating a model. Onuekwusi (2005) accounts of what audio-visual materials can do are as follow: they heighten motivation for learning because of their concreteness; foster continuity of thought when words are coupled with explanations in pictures and sounds; provide freshness and variety; appeal to pupils of varied interests and abilities. Others include: encourage active participation, give need reinforcement, widen the range of pupils’ experience, assure order and continuity of thought and improve the effectiveness of other materials. Effective teaching and learning therefore requires a teacher to teach the pupils with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical realistic and pragmatic (Akinleye, 2010).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The transmission of facts, ideas and information from the teacher to the pupils in a systematic order or procedure is referred to as teaching. During this process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to pupils are brought in display. For quite some times now, the teaching of pupils has suffered in the hands of un-resourceful and un-motivated teachers, especially at the primary school level. Many teachers at this level feel that primary school lesson does not necessarily need to be accompanied by the uses of instructional materials. There has been general outcry of poor performance of learners in primary school in the state. This poor performance stems from the mare fact that there are inadequate instructional materials or resources that will facilitate the teaching of the basic concept of differs subjects in the primary schools. Jiya, (1998), and Kojo (2016) have noted the above mentioned. The primary school learning therefore appear very abstract and difficult for the learners as they used their sense only. It has been observed the primary school teachers find a very herculean task to accompany their lesson with relevant instructional materials such as audio aids, visual aids, visual and audio-visual aids. This is perhaps due to lack of textbooks or resourcefulness or lack of innovativeness or gross incompetents of the teachers. Whichever is the case, this lack of instructional materials constitutes a great deal of problem for effective teaching and learning of the subjects in primary schools.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of instructional materials as educational tool on learning abilities of Primary school pupils. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no influence of instructional materials on primary school pupils learning abilities and academic achievement.
H1: There is a significant influence of instructional materials on primary school pupils learning abilities and academic achievement.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The essence of any research endeavour is an addition to the academic satisfaction, to find solution to the numerous problems confronting man in his attempt to actualize himself in the context of the society. Instructional materials stimulate critical and creative thinking in learners which is an important cornerstone of the primary school philosophy. They also help the learners to develop the skill of analytical enquiry, motivate to produce their own materials and provide experiences that are not easily obtained within the classroom environment. The research will be of help to the younger generation researchers who wish to conduct similar research in the field. It will served as a material to curriculum planners, educational policy makers, writers of different subject textbook and teachers of different subjects in various primary schools. The findings of this research work will be used to enlighten primary school teachers of the need to make use of audio materials in teaching and learning process. The findings of this research work would be used to encourage the government and school management to provide instructional materials for primary school. Also, the findings of the research study would be used to enlighten the school management of the need to enlighten the school management of the need to provide in-service training and learning process. Finally, this research will be useful to government as findings of this studies as well as recommendations could be used by the ministry of education as frame work to organize seminars and workshop to train primary school teachers on how to teach effectively.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the influence of instructional materials as educational tool on learning abilities of Primary school pupils, a case study of Matter Dei Primary School, Lagos.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Instructional materials: Are facilities given to pupils, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).
Learning: This is the process of acquiring dispositions such as knowledge, skills, values and concepts.
Primary Education: Refers to the waivers of all forms of contributions to education by parents in primary schools.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS