1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The teacher is one of the most important inputs in the education system. He shapes the direction and influences to a great extent other educational inputs to achieve the stated goals of the education industry. The extent to which this can be done depends on the quality and quantity of training received by teachers since the quality of educational outcomes depends to a great extent on the quality of teachers. In recognition of this enormous role that the teacher plays, Ukeje (2007) observed that the power to heal or kill, build up or tear apart depends particularly much on the teacher who is the most important part of the education process. Teacher productivity seems to be a nagging issue in education. This low performance by teachers could be attributed to many factors and could also have adverse effects on students’ performance which is one of the outcomes of teacher productivity. Productivity can be measured as a ratio of output to input. In the context of school system, productivity is measured in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness, since the realization of goals and objectives in the school depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of the teachers (Garret & Poole in Ajayi&Afolabi 2012). Training is a very important aspect of staff development. Training according to Udo in Ezeani&Oladele (2013) is the development of specific skills and attitudes needed to perform a particular job or series of jobs to maximize the productivity of the individual and improve the overall organizational efficiency. Ohakwe also inEzeani&Oladele (2013) defined it as a continuous assistance or coaching, given to an employee in order to make him have current knowledge of the job content, scope and relationship within the organization. Retraining is an on-the job training used by organizations to bring about development and improved competency in workers. This is essential especially with the frequent policy changes in education and also in the evolving new knowledge and technology based society. Retraining teachers can help to reduce mistakes and improve innovations in the teaching profession. Training and retraining of teachers can be done in different ways. The purpose of training and retraining is to update, develop and broaden the knowledge that teachers had acquired during the initial teacher education and/or provide them with new skills and professional understanding. It improves the effectiveness of teachers. In the words of Ngala & Odebero (2010) training and retraining were seen as a vehicle to improve on teachers teaching effectiveness. They further noted that teachers getting involved in staff development programmes, particularly pursing higher education and training motivate them into taking their teaching roles more seriously. Teacher training programme in Nigeria has undergone radical changes over the years. It started with the training of Grade IV; Grade III; Grade II; the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) and now Institutes and Faculties of Education in the Universities. The essence of these changes is to improve the quality and competence of the teachers (Okeke, 2012 & Wellington 2012). Okafor (2015) reaffirmed that teachers are the main determinants of quality in education. She pointed that if they are uncommitted, unmotivated, uninspired and untrained the whole nation is doomed. This entails that the kind of secondary school teachers trained in Nigerian Colleges of Education need re-training or upgrading to enhance quality and performance (FME, 2008). The emphasis here is primarily on training and retraining of secondary school teachers for improving quality of teaching. Teachers who had NCE Certificate but the National Policy Document (FME, 2008) demands University Certification for quality assurance. The quality of teaching in the secondary schools cannot be compromised while considering the role of knowledge in human existence (Okorie, 2010). To achieve these laudable objectives, secondary school education in Nigeria needs well trained and dedicated teachers to implement the curriculum and assure quality service delivery. It is not just enough to recruit teachers for the programme, but to provide continuous in-service programme or development programmes for the teachers to update their knowledge, skills and competence for them to function effectively and efficiently. Teachers’ professional development is planned organizational activities aimed at improving and increasing teachers’ skill, knowledge, concept, attitudes and behaviour to enable them meet the demands of the teaching job (Akpan, 2014). It focuses on improving the conceptual skill –intellectual and abilities needed to do a better job. Adeogun (2013) states that teachers’ development programmes are associated with the general improvement of teachers in terms of behaviour, attitudes, skills, knowledge, and perception and in the performance of their duties. Alabi (2014) maintains that the immediate aim of staff development is to improve the performance of those with teaching and management responsibilities, while the ultimate aim is improvement of teaching and learning processes. Thus, the Nigerian teachers in secondary educational institutions should be encouraged to attend training programmes for capacity building and development. These can be achieved by exposing them to in-service training, such as induction programmes, ICT training, workshops, conferences, seminars and refresher courses, particularly for nonprofessional teachers employed to teach in secondary schools.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Teachers are crucial inputs of any educational system because they have the command of the knowledge and skills to be imparted to the learners. Hence, the quality of teachers determines to a great extent the quality of teaching and learning outcomes. Since the inception of secondary education in Lagos state, the government has put in place various development programmes for teachers in order to enhance quality secondary education. Such programmes include among others in-service training, ICT training, seminars, workshops and induction programmes for teachers. However, despite government effort and investment in teacher development programmes, the quality of teaching does not improve to any appreciable level. Some educators blame this on ineffective management of the schools by those concerns, while others attribute it to the poor attitude of some teachers towards teaching and poor work behaviours. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to pose the question “To what extent does teacher professional development relate to quality secondary school education in Lagos state?” This study seeks to provide answer to this question.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine training and retraining of teachers for improving quality of teaching among senior secondary school teachers. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study shall be significant in a number of ways. In the first place, it is understood that investigation into this broad area of study will exposed so many things hitherto dominant facts and which previous researchers in this field has failed to investigated. This analysis will therefore help in the small way to a better understanding of training and retraining programs especially as it’s relate to teachers productivity in secondary schools in Lagos State. Secondly, the utilization of the basic tenets of this research study in general and the body of facts in particular will to a very far extent enhance a government efforts towards ensuring a systematic re-training programs for teachers currently in secondary schools across the country in general and Lagos state in particular. It will also add inputs to government efforts in ensuring sound more effective and efficient teachers that will improve the falling standard of education in the society as well as contribute to high academic performance of students in secondary schools which variably will be leaders in different capacities of human endeavors. Furthermore, the study will assist policy makers and educational planners to fashioning a more variable, teaching and learning environment and an educational system that will enable the country to free the currently challenge of globalization with its emphasis on professionalism and increase productivity. Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and researchers a like as it will contribute to the existing literature in order to add to the body of knowledge in this field, and to the researchers, it will provide inputs into their studies and hence increase their knowledge.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on training and retraining of teachers for improving quality of teaching among senior secondary school teachers in Lagos state
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Training: Organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill.
Retraining: Is the process of learning a new or the same old skill or trade for the same group of personnel. Refresher/Retraining is required to be provided on regular basis to avoid personnel obsolescence due to technological changes & the individual’s memory capacity. This short term instruction course shall serve to re-acquaint personnel with skills previously learnt (recall to retain the potentials) or to bring one's knowledge or skills up-to-date (latest) so that skills stay sharp.
Quality: The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind; the degree of excellence of something.
OTHER SIMILAR EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS