BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Day (2015), the guidance and counseling practices is an efficient and effective way of supporting and helping students to deal with problems and issues in educational, career and personal/social areas in the academic atmosphere. Guidance and counseling as a movement was started in America at the beginning of 20th Century as a reaction. Guidance and counseling as the third force in education along with instruction is an integral part of to change process in an industrialized society. Guidance services were set up within the department of education in September 1968 when the recommendations made by Louis, a consultant was sent over to Malta by United Nation’s Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and were taken up. Globally, guidance and counseling services are essential elements in discipline management of people in all societies. The education system in Nigeria has faced dynamic and rapid changes that have had overwhelming effects on the learner, learning institutions and society at large. Since independence in 1960, there have been numerous changes in policy formulation and directives, one of these being the introduction of guidance and counseling services provision at all levels of the education system. The policies on guidance and counseling have been aimed at preparing young people to face challenges they may encounter in and out of the education system. The main aim of education is to provide opportunities for each student to reach his or her full potential in the areas of education, vocational, social-personal, and emotional development (Kauchak, 2011). In order for students to realize this function, secondary schools are expected to provide guidance and counseling services (GCS) as an integral part of their education. When guidance and counseling services are provided they help prepare students to assume increasing responsibility for their decisions and grow in their ability to understand and accept the results of their choices (Kauchak, 2011). The ability to make such intelligent choices is not inherent but, like other abilities, must be developed. However, some students’ performance in regard to interpersonal, study, vocational and problem-solving skills need to be up scaled. Some of the behavior exhibited by some students in some secondary schools leaves much to be desired. It is occasionally characterized by poor performance, truancy from classes, riots, demonstrations, drinking and all sorts of vices. Hence, there was need to compare whether students who access guidance and counseling services in secondary schools has better attitude toward schooling than their counter parts who may not access the services. Educational transitions are a key moment in the schooling of children and young people. Students’ educational performance and expectations may be affected in the transition from elementary to high school due to the changing demands, the new teaching cultures or the changes of school. Hence guidance programs must include this aspect of student aid. Guidance plays a vital role in removing the educational, personal, social, mental, emotional and other similar problems of the students. Counseling may help students to navigate through different educational paths and options and maintain or increase their expectations and commitment. There are different services that schools can include to perform these functions aimed at advising, following up on and giving support to students. Following the frequent decline of school students performance and coupled with high level of students dropout, social vices, increase in immoral and cult activities, high level of unemployment, among others, effective guidance and counseling practice in schools have remained the key factor that is highly depended upon to restore performance confidence of schools and keep the society vision of building an enviable society flourishing. Guidance and counseling thus, is a requisite for survival and a gauge of how predictable the school system in any society should look. This implies that guidance and counseling has the capacity to determine school performance. Yet, little or no empirical link has been established with the guidance and counseling characteristics and performance of secondary schools. Nziramasanga (2009) states that because of many pressures imposed on the family, parents tend to have little time with their children to give them the necessary guidance. UNESCO (2013) adds that “African adults have become more concerned with earning money and are less occupied with many traditional practices that formerly contributed to the upbringing of young people”. Rapid sociological changes emanating from modernization and urbanization stress students. There is great need for a clear rationale and guidelines for Guidance and Counseling programmes, Taylor and Francis (2009). Schools are social systems which have several objectives to achieve and the role of guidance and counseling is vital in shaping the discipline of the students. Counseling is a process of helping individuals or group of people to gain self-understanding in order to be themselves. Burks and Steffler (2011) see counseling as a professional relationship between a trained Counselor and a client. Gitonga (2007) laments that due to educational and economic challenges they have to grapple with; parents are left with no time to positively parent their children. The result is permissive parenting style, which has its toll on the growing child. Permissive parenting style has no rules or limits. Wangai (2013), in supporting this view observes that modernization in Africa has caused the disintegration of the traditional social structure. He suggested that clear supportive and progressive policies are needed to deal with most problems facing youth through schooling. Such policies can be implemented through the integration of guidance and counseling in secondary school programs. Therefore there is need to study the impact of guidance service on students’ attitude toward schooling among secondary school students in Jos north L.G.A. motivated this study.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In spite of the implementation of guidance and counseling in public secondary schools, negative attitude toward schooling still exist. Wangai (2013) points out that the youth indulge in pleasure and luxury. They exhibit truancy from classes, bad manners, contempt for authority, and disrespect for older people. It is common to hear parents, teachers and church leaders blaming each other, for failing to teach young people to be well behaved. Many parents have abandoned the teaching of their children which they have entrusted to the teachers The Ministry of Education has ensured that each school has a teacher-counselor appointed by Teaching Service Commission, (T.S.C) yet indiscipline cases persist. Although guidance and counseling is offered to students in secondary schools in Nigeria, its effect on shaping attitude and desire of secondary school students toward schooling is not known. So this study sought to ascertain ways in which guidance services influences students’ attitude towards schooling in secondary schools in Jos North L.G.A.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine impact of guidance service on student’s attitude toward schooling among secondary school students. Other specific objectives of the study include;
H0: There is no significant impact of provision of guidance and counseling materials on students’ academic performance while schooling in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant impact of provision of guidance and counseling materials on students’ academic performance while schooling in Nigeria.
H0: There is no significant relationship between guidance services and students’ attitude towards schooling in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between guidance services and students’ attitude towards schooling in Nigeria.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit towards the development of guidance services in secondary schools which will foster positive attitudes toward school, learning, and work among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to impact of guidance services on student’s attitude towards schooling among secondary schools in Nigeria, case study of Jos North L.G.A, Plateau state.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Guidance: It refers to all the activities rendered by educational institutions, which are primarily concerned with assisting individual students understand themselves, thus their needs, interest’s abilities and potentials. Guidance also refers to advise given to the students to show them the right direction to take in their academic and social life. Influence- refers to the attraction given to students by external stimuli to change in their character while in their schooling.
Attitude: This is the disposition or state of mind, a settled way of thinking or feeling about something.
Counseling: It refers to helping process that uses the safety of a special relationship between the counselor and the counselee-who together explore the thoughts, feelings and counselor attitudes of the counselee with the objective of tapping the resources within the counselee to effect healing and change.
Counselor: It refers to a Professional with skills of helping people deal with challenges in their lives by creating a relationship with them.
Impact: Refers to a change produced by an action or cause or an outcome.
Students: It refers to a group of people in the learning process in a school.
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