1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the current society, especially for the young generation, social media has become a part of everyday life. People have access to all types of information across the globe in the palm of hands using social medias. Social medias, such as facebook, twitter, yahoo, telegram, imo, skype, messenger, whatsapp, viber, you tube, etc., has taken the technology world to a new level. The dramatic evolution of technology, especially new social media, has greatly influenced every facet of human society; the way people use time and space, and the perception of medias (Chen, 2012). The world of Information and Communication Technology is yet to experience something more phenomenal than the phenomenon of social media. According to Nche (2012) “without doubt, social media currently seem to take the centre stage in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). In the same vein, Adaja and Ayodele (2013:65) observed that “one of the breakthroughs in information and communication technology in the 21st century was the discovery and emergence of the new media which have facilitated the creation of the different platforms for social interaction.” In Nigeria, for instance, social media sites especially facebook , have apparently become common, especially among the youths in the country. Prior to the invention of this phenomenon, communication over a distance was comparatively difficult. However, the advent of the social media has made the erstwhile impossible become possible, as one can conveniently communicate with anyone at anytime irrespective of geographical barriers and distance. Umekachikelu (2013) has expressed that “it is amazing that with a click one passes information to thousands of people in a second. This is the power of social media”. It has made business, politics and social life effortless and easy. This is further accelerated by the fact that these social media sites are accessible with mobile smart phones, anywhere and at anytime. However, amidst all sociological benefits, social media have regrettably contributed to moral degeneration and decadence among youths in several countries, including Nigeria. This, no doubt, stems from the gross obsession with and abuse of these social networking sites. People are now logging on social medias on mobile devices everywhere, at any time making it a common everyday activity and this can be confirmed which estimates that about 1.925 billion users of smart phones make use of their devices for social media in the world (Star, 2011). More and more scholars have started recently to examine the influence of social media on human life (Piotrowski, 2012). Over the past decade, social media usage have increased substantially in popularity and become part of social practices (Boyd & Ellison,2007). Social medias positively contribute to increased people’s capacity for making and sustaining friendships as well as facilitating regular communication (Marshall, Bejanyan, Di Castro, & Lee, 2012). Because of growth in social media usage, on the other hand, adverse effects in different developmental aspects or even in addictive behaviors were observed (Cao, Sun, Wan, Hao & Tao, 2011)). Kuss and Griffiths (2011) found that adolescents are at vulnerable period to various social media influences such as, cognitive, emotional, and physical. Currently excessive use of social medias resulted in negative impact on maintaining daily routines, school performance, social and psychological wellbeing (Choi, 2007; Sirgy, 2013 & Rickert, 2012). Furthermore, Kalpidou, Costin and Morris, (2011); Niemz (2012) suggested that frequently using social media was related to lower self-esteem, and were more socially disinherited than non-users. Technology, like two sides of a coin, brings both negative and positive effects. Social media has transformed the way information is received and sent and has greatly bridged the geographical gap that exist between people. The world has been changed rapidly by the evolution of technology; this has resulted the use of technology as the best medium to explore the wide area of knowledge. The evolution of internet technology has led its use as the best medium for communication. In the present world, social media usage is becoming a critical issue especially for its effect on the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents on social vices (Kalpidou, Costin, & Morris, 2011).) Social vices are forms of evil, wicked and criminal actions or behaviors in the society. Vices are social problems and have been thought of as social situations that a large number of observers feel are inappropriate and need remedying. Vices are those acts and conditions that violate societal norms and values. Using what was presumed as the universal criteria for “normality”, sociologists commonly assumed that social “pathology” was the consequence of “bad” people. Social problems resulted from the actions of maladjusted people who were abnormal because of mental deficiency, mental disorder, lack of education or incomplete socialization. Nigerian society is a highly dynamic one. The dynamism gives rise to new issues of public interest. It also generated new problems and pose daunting challenges for which the society and its people cannot overlook. Some of the common ones (vices) include cultism, drug abuse, examination malpractice, obscene dressing, and sexual promiscuity/harassment. People who use social media excessively showed significantly more symptoms of depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and loneliness than those who are not users (Morrison & Gore, 2010). Similarly, Andreassen (2015) investigated that those individuals who are highly concerned about social media, strongly motivated to use social media and who devoted excessive amount of time to use social media negatively affected in their psychological well-being, health well-being, social and academic activities. This trend of events demands for urgent and timely intervention. Therefore, counseling intervention becomes a compelling necessity for the Nigerian youths. Hence social vices stems from thinking (cognition), the use of cognitive behavior restructuring is eminent. It is against this background that the study sets to examine social media and adolescent behavioral adjustments on social vices: implications for counseling.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Technology has many positive aspects but, in the wrong hands, it can become dangerous. For the young people it is experiments to do what they feel is good or exciting to them and the friends and at the same time avoid adult supervision. Livingstone (2008) opines that for teenagers, the online realm may be adopted enthusiastically because it represents their space, visible to the peer group more than to adult surveillance, an exciting yet relatively safe opportunity to conduct the social psychological task of adolescence – to construct, experiment with and present a reflexive project of the self in a social context, as well as, for some, for flouting communicative norms and other risk-taking behaviors. Technology brought about social media which is a valuable tool but is somewhat misused by today‘s youth. The two main forms that the youth use to access social media are cell phones and the Internet which have brought about major changes in their lifestyle. With the current exposure and easy access that the youth are able to get out of these mediums, this study will establish the impacts it has have on the youth. Issues that are expected to arise out of this research include exposure to problematic materials, online victimization of youth, exposition to unnecessary online marketing and advertising, exposure to dangerous online behaviors, issues of identity theft, the emergence of digital divide and generation gap between parents and the youth. Therefore, the present study focused on examining social media and adolescent behavioral adjustments on social vices: implications for counseling, a focus on few selected secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine social media and adolescent behavioral adjustments on social vices: implications for counseling. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant relationship between social media, adolescents’ behavioral adjustment and social vices in selected secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
H1: There is a significant relationship between social media, adolescents’ behavioral adjustment and social vices in selected secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of profound benefits to enlighten the teachers and government on the effects of social media and adolescents behavioral adjustments on social vices among secondary school students. This study would also be of immense benefit to students and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to social media and adolescent behavioral adjustments on social vices: implications for counseling.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social media (social networking site): Social media or social networking site (SNS) interchangeably, refers to the online platform in the internet which allows users create their virtual profiles, social network and relations with other users. For the purpose of this study, SNS covers the mainstream platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
Adolescent: is a young person in the process of developing from a child into an adult.
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