1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Vaccines are a critical method to stem the escalation of the COVID19 pandemic. As of April 8, 2020, there were more than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates being developed (Pogue et al 2020). This vaccine development is moving quickly; two vaccine candidates had entered Phase 1 clinical trials prior to March 30, 2020 (Lurie et al 2020), and five vaccine candidates were in Phase 1 clinical trials as of April 9, 2020 (Thanh Le et al, 2020). Given the big population and the relatively high vaccine hesitancy for existing vaccines as well as poor vaccination coverage, understanding vaccine acceptance is critical (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al 2019).
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective preventive interventions [Lurie et al, 2020] among the range of measures combating the pandemic [Lai et al, 2010]. Many countries have accelerated vaccine development and developed COVID-19 vaccination programs; as of early 2021, there were over 170 vaccines in pre-clinical development and over 60 vaccines in clinical development [WHO, 2021].Despite the fact that vaccine research has advanced at a breakneck pace, public acceptance and negative attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines remain significant obstacles. Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine is recognized as a critical factor in determining the success of a vaccination program [Lin et al, 2020]. Previous studies have looked at the acceptance rate of the 2009 HIN1 influenza vaccine, which is important because public acceptance of vaccines is important.
Given that actual or perceived vaccine efficacy may be low, it's also important to figure out how vaccine efficacy affects acceptance. Given the potential for alarmist, sensationalist portrayals of the pandemic, the high use of news media is concerning (Klemm et al, 2016). Myths, rumors, and disinformation can also spread swiftly online, particularly through social media (Vosoughi et al, 2018). Uncertainty about COVID19, for example, about whether people have natural immunity and whether specific home remedies (garlic, vitamins, and saline nose rinsing) help protect against coronavirus, may have been exacerbated by people's reliance on social media. It could also explain why some people aren't sure if the virus was created by humans and released on purpose. Uncertainty and rapidly changing information could have contributed to the virus's increased fear (Han et al, 2006). These findings highlight the necessity of disseminating accurate COVID-19 health information to the general public via a variety of mediums (news, social media, and government websites) in order to correct misconception. The impact of media exposure could be linked to the dissemination of critical pandemic health information. Although early media exposure appears to have assisted health-protective practices, as the epidemic progresses, media fatigue—when people become numb to continual messaging—may diminish this benefit (Collinson et al, 2015). Excessive or misplaced health protective behaviors, such as presenting for diagnostic testing when the actual risk of exposure is low, may also result from repeated media exposure, which can have long-term health consequences (Garfin et al, 2020). According to emerging evidence from organizations that have conducted widespread testing for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, between 2 and 8 out of every 10 infections may be asymptomatic (Mizumoto et al, 2020; Nishiura et al, 2020). Those who are infected, even if they are asymptomatic, can still spread the virus to others (Bai et al,2020; Zou et al, 2020). Furthermore, during the incubation period, people appear to be infectious and asymptomatic (Lauer et al, 2020). People frequently rely on symptoms to diagnose illness, assuming that if they don't have any, they are healthy (Diefenbach & Leventhal, 1996). In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, such assumptions could have serious ramifications in terms of community transmission and reduced health-protective behaviours. As a result, public health campaigns about COVID-19 must address these misunderstandings. It is critical to investigate COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and predictors, as well as attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines among student nurses.
Getting people with positive attitude is a promising way of enhancing willingness to volunteer in management of COVID-19 crisis (Lauber et al., 2020). Furthermore, because of the high risk of infection, nurses work under great pressure when dealing with these patients, as a result, they need a helping hand to be able to combat the rapid spread of the disease condition. The willingness of nursing students to serve as volunteers regarding COVID-19 will play an important role in achieving victory in the battle against the epidemic in the country, hence, the need to conduct this study at this time.Previous studies have explored the knowledge and attitudes of medical staff towards infectious diseases and their willingness to work during an epidemic (Askarian et al., 2007; Sarani et al., 2016; Angelillo et al., 2001; Daugherty et al., 2009). Ma et al. (2009) reported the outcome of a study on the knowledge and attitudes of critical care clinicians during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. They found that only 82.3% of medical staff expressed willingness to care for patients with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (swine flu). However, no study focused on nursing students during this pandemic outbreak. The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude and acceptance of nursing students to COVID - 19 vaccinations in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The COVID-19 vaccines are surrounded by a cloud of uncertainty. To begin with, the new mRNA-based vaccinations as a unique technology may be met with suspicion, as there has been no prior experience or success with such an approach. In addition, the rapid development and registration of vaccines in less than a year may have played a role in lowering the level of acceptance. Anti-vaccination campaigns, fueled by new technology and the short time span of vaccine development, are another global phenomenon that has contributed to such a low level. Such social media campaigns with fabricated, false, and sometimes misleading translations feed some people's conspiracy theories. Some factors unique to the country and region may also play a role. For example, a segment of the public has lost faith in local authorities and/or disapproves of the pandemic's overall handling. Many decisions may be unwelcome, disproportional to the pandemic status, unjustified, or unsupported by science, according to some people. COVID-19 pandemic as with other previous pandemics is associated with feelings of fears, anxiety, and worries (Blakey & Abramowitz 2017; Wheaton et al 2012). However, it is unique in that people are concerned not only about becoming infected or transmitting the disease to others (Blakey & Abramowitz 2017), but also about societal and economic concerns as a result of the government's efforts to contain the pandemic and prevent disease transmission between humans (Blakey & Abramowitz 2017). (Nicola et al 2020). Curfews and lockdowns (the largest in history), social distancing and self-isolation, school and university closures, border closures, travel restrictions, and quarantine are among these measures (Mannan & Farhana 2020; Nicola et al 2020).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes towards acceptance of (COVID-19) vaccination among selected student nurses. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0:Attitude of student nurses does not influence the acceptance of covid-19 vaccination.
H1:Attitude of student nurses significantly influences the acceptance of covid-19 vaccination.
H0: There is no significant relationship between acceptance to receive COVID-19 vaccine and characteristics of student nurses.
H1: There is a significant relationship between acceptance to receive COVID-19 vaccine and characteristics of student nurses.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study are considered to be of great importance to various stakeholders for several reasons. Foremost, there is a paucity of previous research regarding how tertiary institutions are trying to cope with keeping students engaged during COVID-19 pandemic and the closure of many tertiary institutions globally. This study will help uncover critical areas and contribute to local literature on the subject, which in turn could be used by relevant authorities in improving their education initiatives.The findings of this study may help policymakers develop proactive campaigns and well-designed strategies by emphasizing the importance of vaccination in the community and encouraging vaccine uptake and acceptance, particularly among student nurses, in order to prevent further deaths and contain the pandemic's spread.
1.7 DELIMITATION / SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
The study is based on attitudes towards acceptance of (COVID-19) vaccination among selected student nurses of Gwagwalada school of Nursing, Abuja
1.8 OPERATION DEFINITION OF TERMS
Vaccine: Suspension of weakened, killed, or fragmented microorganisms or toxins or of antibodies or lymphocytes that is administered primarily to prevent disease.
Pandemic: An outbreak of a disease that affects large numbers of people throughout the world.
Corona Virus Pandemic (COVID-19): Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.
Vaccination: Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism.
Can't find what you are looking for?
Call (+234) 07030248044.
OTHER SIMILAR HEALTH EDUCATION PROJECTS AND MATERIALS