Stress is a complicated model. The word “stress” was first used in physics and then it become the part of psychology. Hobfull (2011) defines this term as “when people starts to oppose external environment or forces also by following them”. Moreover Keinan (2008) further defined that “The term stress refers to the interaction between the person and the environment”. Stress is the response of a person to a stimulus that disturbs physical or mental equilibrium. In other words stress is the challenge or a threat to peoples’ wellbeing. Although some stresses are good and make you motivate; most others are bad and undermine both mental and physical health. To make the best use of people as a valuable resource of the organization, attention must be given to the relationship between staff and the nature of their jobs. The organization’s work and the design of jobs can have a significant effect on staff. In this connection, the level of stress is also an important factor that may have impact on the employees’ behaviour. An adverse level of stress affects overall performance of the organization. Further, from the employees’ point of view their stress is caused not only from the organizational factors but also from their individual factors such as family problem, death of close family member etc. Therefore to get an efficient outcome, organization should appropriately administer the level of stress. In order to achieve this objective, all the factors which lead to stress should be properly managed. The level of stress is differed from a person to another. Positive stress will bring eagerness and enthusiasm to life, and negative stress will destroy the momentum of life. The impact of stress over the performance of employees’ is an interesting combination. Job performance refers to whether an employee does his/her job well or not. Job performance consists of behaviours that employees do in their jobs that are relevant to the goals of the organization (Campbell, McCloy, Oppler and Sager, 2010). Success of the organization depends on the performance of the employees. Most employees feel they will perform more effectively and efficiently when they are allowed to work with autonomy and lesser stress. On the other hand, when there is a higher stress, often results an increase level of staff turnover, absenteeism and work environment disputes. Furthermore Kahn and Byosiere (1992) explored job stress frequent effect of role conflict, role ambiguity and work overload. Bedeian et al (1988) argued that work-family conflict also results as job stress. Such factors have always a negative impact on employees, psychologically and physically. Due to massive amount Job stress has become a major challenge for the organizations d. So now a day’s employee’s behaviour is significantly affected by the job stress. Due to their major role in running the organizations effectively and successfully, it is clear and understood that employees are the most important assets for the organizations, so cannot be treated like machines. It is clear that employees who works stress free environment are more productive and proves to be valued assets for an organization but when the organizations are not committed with their employees stress, this results in increased absenteeism, turnover, work ineffectiveness and usually legal financial damages. McGrath (2013) defined job stress as a“ condition in which employees are need to fulfil the duties that exceed the person’s ability and the resources which are required to perform these duties, under the situation where there is a huge difference between rewards and the demand for fulfilling the duties”. In addition to that Walonick (2010) further explained that job stress is the major issue of the employees for the organizations in both developed and the developing countries and become a massive challenge for employer mostly in developing nations where the employer doesn’t provide much attention and weight to the employee stress. So a lot of factors are there that works as job stressors such as role conflict, role ambiguity, work overload and work family conflict and their consequences are work ineffectiveness, absenteeism and in extreme, turnover. All these factors make jobs more difficult to perform and results in negative behaviour at work, employees involved in theft and aggression. Hole et, al (2001) describes that consequently, it is important to measure the economic impact of job stress because this assessment would have a major impact on management decisions. Most of the organizations have no estimation that how much employees’ job stress costs them each year. Due to job stress, employees in the workplace not only become unproductive and unmotivated but it’s also a reason other mental and physical diseases. So the impact of stress on cost and productivity is extensive to the organization, yet it is not given much importance. Selye (2013) pointed out that does not always involve negative consequences, actually up to some extent it can improve employee’s performance but it become an issue that needs proper attention. So in short job is an observable fact of today’s world that may express itself differently, and affect workers differently, in different working environments. When we study job stress in different situations and environments it creates better understanding of the problem and also helps analyze how to reduce its negative impact on employee’s performance. Thus the study aims to find the impact of job stress on employee’s performance. As it is obvious that no one can work to its optimum level when s/he is under stress. Under severe stress, an individual fails to take clear-cut decisions, re-evaluate and reassess the priorities and lifestyles, and ultimately, tend to fall into unproductive distractions. This can be described as a classic case of ‘burnout’. Often burnout will manifest itself in a reduction in motivation, volume and quality of performance, or in dissatisfaction with or departure from the activity altogether. The purpose of this research is to describe job stress in the context of banking sector and the factors that contribute to stress within that organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Job stress in an organisation has a profound impact on performance of employees and has extensive practical and economic consequences. Various studies have examined the relationship between job stress and job performance. There are various job stressors in the workplace like workload, job security, role conflicts, autonomy, shift work, low salaries, technological changes etc. There is an impending need to analyse the major and most common factors related to job stress like workload stress, job security stress, and shift work stress and analyse how it affects the employees’ job performance. Organisations have been facing high employee turnover as an outcome of delayed control of these stressors affecting organisational productivity in profound way. Moten suggested that employee performance is declining due to the on the job activities and managerial policies. On the basis of her findings we are researching that “Work activities and culture effect the work performance and behavioural performance in positive or negative way”.
1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of job stress on employee performance. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the level of job stress on employees.
2. To examine factors that can reduce job stress.
3. To examine the effect of job stress on employee performance among bankers.
4. To examine the job stress factors influencing the performance of the employees working in banks.
5. To examine the relationship between Job stress and employee performance.
6. To examine the coping strategies followed by the employer and employee to overcome their stress for the purpose of improving their performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the level of job stress on employees in the banking sector?
2. What are the factors that can reduce job stress?
3. What are the effects of job stress on employee performance among bankers?
4. What are the job stress factors influencing the performance of the employees working in banks?
5. What is the relationship between Job stress and employee performance?
6. What are the coping strategies followed by the employer and employee to overcome their stress for the purpose of improving their performance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study can be significant particularly for two sets of stake holders namely the employers who after knowing the occupational stress inducers (OSI), can adopt appropriate strategies to reduce the occupational stress thereby enhancing the employees‟ job performance; and the employees who after being aware can take appropriate steps to reduce their own stress saving themselves from variety of health issues and also help management to implement the stress management strategies. The study is deemed important and relevant to the field of organizational and human resource management as it is to increase employee‘s passion and deliverables in performing their work for the firm‘s performance. Furthermore, this study is also an important part for the researcher‘s degree accomplishment and knowledge generation. This paper can be used as useful citation source for many other researches or practitioners who are interested in studying the impact of job stress on employee performance.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the effect of job stress on employee performance among bankers in Oyo state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Job stress: This refers to a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. Stress is an unwanted reaction people have to severe pressures or other types of demands placed upon them
Employee performance: The job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were executed. Many business personnel directors assess the employee performance of each staff member on an annual or quarterly basis in order to help them identify suggested areas for improvement.
Banking institution: (also referred to as a universal or commercial bank) can range from a large financial institution with a highly visible brand name and an international presence to a small organization with a local presence.
OTHER SIMILAR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND MATERIALS