Concept of Human Resources Development (HRD)
Human Resource Development (HRD) is a strategic approach to investing in human capital. It draws on other human resource processes, including resourcing and performance assessment to identify actual and potential talents. Human resource development provides the framework for self-development, training programme for and career profession to meet an organization’s future skill requirement.
Investment in employee skill to support the need of advanced technology is a prime example of this approach. Financially obsessed managers in free market countries have preferred cost cutting to investment in people or new technology. Moreover, there has been a chronic failure to unstand the link between the two: Investment in new equipment has been used as worthwhile only if it leads to a cut in employees costs. Managers in Australia and the UK, for example, have been wedded to a penny-pinching Menta city according the kind of high technology that requires exposure, skilled workers, their counterparts in Singapore and Korea have vested more readily in new machines, tools in order to increase output and profitability. Subsequently taking on extra staff to meet demand.
According to Sambrook (2001) Human resource Development has its in the early organization development intervention of the 1940s, but the term was first used by Nadler (cited in Nadler and Nadler, 1989, p4) described Human resource development as ‘organized learning experience provided by employers, within a specific period of time to bring about the possibility of performance improvement and personal growth. It is appropriate, therefore to regard training as an integral aspect of Human resource development.
Gibb (2002) argues that: Past definition of education, training and development with their essentially sequentially division of learning, one no longer useful or acceptable. They would be deemed to draw the boundaries around the subject in theory and practice too narrowly and also inaccurately; they would not capture and deal with the practice and theory of contemporary work and organization.
Sambrook (2001) Argues that human resource development can be thought of as a construct, like ‘Love’ or ‘quantity?. It is intangible in itself since it cannot be found, touched or seen by it may be investigated through features associated with the concept that might distinguish it from training and development. She argues that training and development was focused on operational issues and took short-term or reactive approach in which specialist ‘did training’ delivered it to passive trainee and usually conducted it in classroom. Sambrook describes this as ‘tell’ approach as opposed to ‘sell’ or ‘competent’. Human resource development competencies, human resource development focuses on competencies and takes a wider approach encompassing self.
According to Sambrook, self development, employee development, management and organizational development probably delivered by facilitators, there is two way
Communications and some consultation together with far more diverse training method. There is an attempt to link human resource development function and the organization one strategically and totally interlinked and there is an emphasis on learning individuals are encouraged to take responsibility, to ensure and to be participative and collaborative.
Gibb (2002) prefers the term ‘Learning and development considering that it addresses a combination of cognitive capabilities, and behaviours that have to be established or change in the process. He employs ‘cognitive capabilities’ as a more comprehensive concept then ‘knowledge’.
Similarly, Gibb wraps the order concept skills and competence within the term capabilities: arguing that ‘skills’ has too many connotations of physical performance and also the ‘competence is meresingly questioned as a valid and useful concept. The third dimension, behavior is favoured over ability since it draws performances or actual performance.
Therefore learning and development strategy represent the approach an organization adopts to ensure that now and in future, learning and development activities support the achievement of its goals by development the skills and capabilities of individuals and teams. It can be described similarly as strategic human resources development, define as follows.
Walton (1999) strategic human resource development involves introducing, eliminating, modifying, directing, processes in such a way that all individuals and teams are equipped with skills, knowledge and competences they require to undertake current and future tasks required by the organization. The term ‘Learning and development’ has largely replaced that of ‘human resource development’ HRD.
Armstrong (2011) Learning and development is the process of acquiring and developing knowledge, skills, capabilities, behaviours and attitudes through learning or development experiences. It is concerned with ensuring that the organization has the knowledgeable, skilled, engage and committed workforce it need. Learning is the means by which a person acquires and develops new knowledge, skills, capabilities, behaviours, and attitude. As explained by Homey and Mumford (1996)” ‘learning has happened when people can demonstrate that they know something that they did not know before (insights realization as well as facts) and when they can do something they could not do before (skills)’.
Learning is a continuous process that not only enhances existing capabilities, but also leads to the development of the skills. Knowledge and attitudes the prepare people for enlarger or higher – level responsibility in fortunes. Armstrong (2011).
Therefore human resource development (HRD) Armstrong (2011) is concerned with ensuring that a persons (employee) ability and potentials are grown and realized through the provision of learning experience or through self-directed (self managed) learning. It is unfolding process that enable people to progress from a present state of understanding and capability to a future state which higher-level skills, knowledge and competencies are required.
Significance of Human Resource Development
Human resource development strategy represent an approach an organization adopt to ensure now and future performance of employee and organization has a benefit and significance which increases the productivity and performance of the organization.
Armstrong (2011) listed the significance of human resource development which increases the performance (profit) and better utilization of human resource include:
2.3 Aims of Human Resource Planning
The aim of human resource planning in a organization will depend largely on its contexts, but in general term the typical aim might be to:
The Relationship Between Human Resources Development And Business Planning (Development)
Human resource development takes the form of learning activities that prepare the individual employees to exercise order or increase responsibilities Armstrong (2011).
Armstrong also went further to described human resource development as a process of acquiring knowledge, skills, capabilities behaviours and attitudes through learning and development at expenses.
Walton (1999) sees human resource development as a strategic which involves the process of introducing, eliminating, modifying, directing processing such a way that all individual and teams are equipped with skills knowledge and competencies they require to undertake current and future tasks required by the organization.
Business development is concerned with learning and development which should demonstrate how learning, training and development programmes will meet business needs.
According to Keans and Millet (1997) go as far as to claim that: ‘If a business objective cannot be cited as a basis for designing, training and development, then no training and development should be offered’.
According to Armstrong (1996) he explain the relationship between the two, human resource development and business development. He says conceptually human resource development should be an integral part of business development, that is bases of human resource development is for the development of the business.
Armstrong (2011) view this as: Human resource development as a strategy for business development where is sees business development as the development of new knowledge or insights that have the potential to influence behavior. It has be defined by Marsick (1994) as a process of: “coordinated systems change, with mechanisms but in for individuals and groups to access, build and use organizational, in every structure and culture to develop long-term organization business capacity.
Harnson (1997) explained that business organizational learning is not simply the sum of the learning of individuals and groups (see for example Argyris and Schon, 1996) have confirmed that without effective processes and system linking individual and the organizational learning, the one has no necessary counterpart with the other.
Therefore the bases of human resource development is the need for business development, that is the license of human resource development activities and programmes is to integrate business requirement and employee’s need to achieve the missions, goals and objectives of the business which will result to business development. Armstrong (2011).
Methods and Techniques of Human Resource Development
There are several methods of human resource development which can be use for developing human resource which can be classified into two, this include:
Off – The – Job Development
This is the development type or method that is conducted outside the working environment usually conducted in the classrooms. This development includes:
This involves development method which is conducted in a artificial environment that closely reflects the actual or real working environment.
This is an advance form of computer simulation which places the employees in simulated environment that is visually the same as the real environment. It involves the use of special gadget which allows for interactivity with the system. These method is mostly used in aviation industry and similar industry.
In these method of development, employees are presented with an in-depth description of a problem(s) they are likely to encountered in the cost of performing their jobs. They are then expected to disorganized and analysed the problem(s) generate and evaluate alternative causes of action and select the suitable one.
On-The-Job Development Method
These are said to be the most commonly used method of developing employees, perhaps because they are believed to be simple and less expensive, example of this method includes:
This is a development method where employees learn and develop on a job while working on it. In order words it means having a person learn a job by actually doing it. Put simply it is referred to learning by doing the method in most suitable where simulation is different also where it easier to learn and develop by watching and doing.
These method of development combines on the job and classroom lectures. It is widely used in development employees for many occupation. It involves the tutorlage of a master craft person.
The method of development is use for jobs that are performed following a logical sequence of steps these types of job are best taught stage by stage. The step is refers to as job struction. It involves outlining the necessary steps and the corresponding key point. The steps choose what to be done while the key point shows how it is to be done and why.
This is a kind of development method meant for executive development. The employees assume the roles of the position they are expected to occupy after the development, and their performance are simultaneously evaluated and corrected where necessary by the development instructions.
OTHER SIMILAR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS AND MATERIALS