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Project Topic:

PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 65 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   3,759 people found this useful

Project Department:

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The maintenance of international peace and security is the greatest challenge of the United Nations (UN). It will be judged by how well it fulfills this goal. It is, however it is important to remember that the organization was created to maintain peace not only by preventing and resolving military conflict, but also by promoting economic and social progress and development. At its creation, the UN was based on a set of assumptions that were expected to shape the post-war era. Legally, the UN was constructed on the thesis of sovereign nation-states, and of the sanctity of the frontiers of each under the founding Charter. The collective security system was based on the assumption that the grand alliance of the World War II would continue in a joint guardianship of world peace. However, collective security became a hostage of the Cold War. Throughout the Cold War years, the UN was of marginal importance for dealing with the core international issues of war and peace as the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union paralyzed the Security Council. In the same way, questions about the organization's efficiency, capabilities, and cost-effectiveness were either ignored or considered of little significance. While the UN has indeed saved lives, resolved conflicts, eradicated diseases, and promoted democracy, its failures have been widely reported and contributed to the perception of an inefficient organization. UN did have some achievements during this period, but it did not play the role that its founders anticipated. At the beginning of the 1990s, a new stage of world politics emerged. Since the end of the Cold War, the UN has enjoyed a burst of unaccustomed influence. It suddenly found itself overburdened by the many new tasks which governments have given to it. Many people expressed optimistic opinions about the role of UN multilateral ism in the new world order UN is no longer ignored and or neglected.

Evaluations of the organization now relate mainly to what it does, tries to do, or should do, as an operating agency in the field. The efforts of adapting UN system to the changing realities of the international politics and making the UN a more efficient organization dates back to the earliest years of the organization3 UN has been trying to respond many changes it had gone through since its foundation without making any amendment in the Charter. These developments range from the Cold War to decolonization process and social and economic rights resulting from it, from a more widespread recognition of the human rights to the international action with the purpose of protecting common values. Some of these prevented the UN from functioning as planned by the Charter, and others required it to assume new responsibilities. Generally, all efforts aimed at adapting the UN to the changing conditions are called reform. Re-organization of the Secretariat, redefining priorities, re-organization of the inter-governmental mechanism are only some ofthem.4 Some think that only change must be achieved is that making the UN more efficient and this effort does not require an amendment in the Charter. On the other hand, developing countries believe that other issues, Iike membership of the principle organs and committees and reorganization of the relationship between the UN and specialized agencies, must be included in the reform process.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The UN has been argued from the foregoing to have been established to enhance global peace, security and development .This study aims to investigate the factors that are responsible for the organizations inability to achieve global peace and security which would have ushered in global development after sixty –six years of its existence. With the wide variety of threats to international peace and security that followed the Cold War's end, the United Nations undertook more peacekeeping operations than at any time in the previous 45 years. As these increasingly taxed the UN's capacity, regional and sub regional organizations (IGOs) initiated peacekeeping and efforts began to look at the possibilities for a division of labor.  The significance of safety and security for UN peace operations is often underestimated or misunderstood. 1 While always an issue of interest, it has been narrowly conceived, for example, as minimizing casualties and expanding legal protections. But safety and security has a strategic impact, including on the efficacy of mandate execution, force generation, the evolution of peace operations, and the role of the UN in the maintenance of international peace and security. While many of the relevant safety and security issues have been identified, they have not been understood in a holistic manner and addressed with sufficient priority. Since its inception, UN peacekeeping has undergone significant evolution, moving from unarmed inter positional ceasefire monitoring forces to integrated multidimensional missions, which now carry out a spectrum of activities and are mandated to use force. Peacekeepers often operate in volatile environments and with a mandate to protect civilians. Likewise, alongside peacekeeping operations, special political missions have increasingly complex mandates and are being deployed into ever more dangerous situations. Fragile government structures and intractable political disputes have created instability and environments where threats proliferate. The nature of the threats continues to evolve, with targeted and asymmetric hostile acts against UN personnel becoming more regular feature of many missions.

1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is to examine the public perception on the challenges and prospects of United Nations security. Other general objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the safety and security situation in the UN system.
  2. To examine the actions taken towards abating the security Crisis by the United Nations.
  3. To examine the impact of the challenges faced by UN Security Council on peacekeeping.
  4. To examine the challenges encountered by the United Nations Security Council.
  5. To examine the role and importance of United Nations Security Council.
  6. To suggest ways to proffer solutions to the Crisis faced by the UN Security Council.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How is the safety and security situation in the UN system?
  2. What are the actions taken towards abating the security Crisis by the United Nations?
  3. How is the impact of the challenges faced by UN Security Council on peacekeeping?
  4. What are the challenges encountered by the United Nations Security Council?
  5. What are the role and importance of United Nations Security Council?
  6. What are the ways to proffer solutions to the Crisis faced by the UN Security Council?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: There is no significant impact of challenges faced by the UN Security on peacekeeping.

H1: There is a significant impact of challenges faced by the UN Security on peacekeeping.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY     

The study will examine the historical antecedents of internal security crisis in the world and the extent to which it has affected the well being of citizens and also its impact on security. Globalization has even generated the WTO clause on National Security exception which empowers the US and other Western powers to divert civilian fund for arms production for export; thus increasing militarization for the globe and increasing insecurity problems that hinder the tranquility required for productive activities that will develop societies. The theory argues that these groups control the world systems and its rules and was responsible for the two world wars, the dissolution of the League of Nations and the foundation of the UN. To most manmade disasters such as the attacks on US on September 11, 2001, are masterminded by the state actors in this cabal but shielded from the public through the media also controlled by them. The theory adds that in such situations states and organizations that do not act their interest are singled out as culprits for destruction and their principal aim is simply to create a single world, a new world order in which they have complete control both politically and economically. The theory argues that this cabal controls the UN and its agencies and accounts for the double standard of which the UN is known for.

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The study is based on the public perception on the challenges and prospects of United Nations security.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Security: Is the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset, such as a person, organization, community or nation.

Peace Keeping: The active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities, especially by an international military force or it refers to activities intended to create conditions that favor lasting peace.

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