ProjectClue.com WhatsApp or Call Us

projectclue whatsapp icon07030248044

Project Topic:

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATE FROM WOUND INFETIONS

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 76 ::   Attributes: Abstract, Appendix  ::   8,625 people found this useful

Project Department:

MICROBIOLOGY UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

Project Body:

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial activity of sweet orange(citrus smensin) on staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from would infection was studied. A total number of 100 wound sample were collected form different individual from different age range within 5-8years and examined,. The test organisms S auras and E coli were cultured separately on Nutrient and macconkey agar plate and incubated for 24 hrs at 37)c. the highest isolation of bacterial organisms was obtained in staphylococcus auras as 100 (32%) followed by Escherichia coli as 92 (29%) there were isolation of other organisms, Klebsiella species was 76 (24%) followed by pseudomonas 44 (14%) the average zone of inhibition of orange extract on S aureus    was 1.8 mm and E. coli was 1.9mm also out of 100 person with S. aureus 72 showed sensitive to orange extract and out of 92 person with E coli 77 were sensitive to orange extract. The average zone of inhibition  exhibited by these drug on S. aureus were 8.95mm for Drovid 6.74 mm for ciprofloxacin while on E coli the average zones of inhibition  were 8.63mm for Drovid 6.67mm for Enythrompcin 4.47mm for anbtpicillin and 6.57mm for ciprofloxacin. The  result of the sensitivity pathen of both orange extant and antibiotics on S aureus and E coli showed that some of the isolated organisms were susceptible  while some were resistance to both orange extract and antibiotics. The result should that the zone   of inhibition of the orange extract were minimal on both S. aureus and E coli when compared to the zone of inhibition of the tested antibiotics on both organisms through the inhibition level of orange  extract invitro (outside the body) is minimal, its active ingredient vitamin  C boosts the immune system invivo (insove the body) by increasing the production of B and T cells and other white blood cells including those that destroy micro organisms.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sweet orange is a strum belonging to the plant family ruracea with a botanical name citrus simrnsia. They are berries but because or their unusual structure, they are called fresperidiums. Sweet oranges originates in southern China thousands of yeast’s ago. Now they are most popular and wide spread of the citrus fruits. Citrus saneness (sweet oranges) can be grown is most parts of the tropics where than five months and where there is fairly even distribution of  rainfall  throughout the year. The  trees can be grown from seed but its more usual to buy  budded citrus sincensis from private nursery men or form official Agricultural sources. Citrus saneness  is a spreading  ever  green, some time spiny trees up to  12m  fall with ovale elliptic leaves which are commonly 7-10cm long dark green and routed at the base. They are carried on short articulated petioles with very narrow wins. The leaves are strongly scented the white sweet smelling flowers are  smaller than those of the group. The rounded fruits are up to 12cm in diameter. Deep yellow to orange or in humict climate remaining green when ripe. Sweet oranges (citrus saneness) are trotrical crops. They are also annual crops (Cobley 1976)

In a typical sweet orange, the excerpt and mesa carp are leathery and protect the juicy inner tissue deceived from the endocarp from damage and desiccation. The epidermis of the fruit has a thick cuticle and varying number of stomata, the excerpt or flavedo is a layer of irregular photosynthctically active parenchyma cells which is green in young fruit and becoming orange or greenish when they nature. The mesocarp is thicker than the exocarp and consists of inter cellular space. The mesocarp is know as the albedo. It is rich in vitamin C sugar cellulose and in pectin. The mesocarp and excarp together form the bird  of the fruit. The center of the fruit is occupied by the development  carpels of the ovary which are disposed around the pithy axis in form of several closely packed segments. Each segment develops from a single carpal and is surrounded by thin, transparent endocarp or “ray” form which multi-cellular hairs grow to fill each segment. Each huge cell or pulp vesicle of these hairs fills with juice and they form the edible part of the fruit for which the crops are grown. The  seed lies on axle placenta close to the central axis and in the nature fruit is about 40- 45 percent juice 30 percent rind and 30 percent pulp and seeds which taken together consists of about  90 percent water 5-10 percent sugar 1-2  percent petunias various acids, essential oil proteins and minerals.

Generally the fruit contains 80-90 percent of sugar and acids with relative proportion  varying between other species of citrus. Citric acid  is the abundant acid in the sap. Pectin in the juice gives it a  cloudy colloidal  appearance. Cilrus nsinensis contain mineral salts,  glycosides, small amount of protein and vitamin (cobley 1976) it is a good source of cirus are citrusparadisc (grape fruit) citruslimon (lemon) citrus  aurantatifolia (lime) citrus aurantinum (sour orange) citrus reticulate  (tangermie and maudanine) citrus grandis (pummelo) and citrus medical (citron) The sugar and acids vary between species.

The medical potency of sweet orange (citrus smeasin) is due to its high content in vitamin  C which is believed to stimulated the production of white blood cells, primarily neutrophib, which attack foreign antigens such as bacteria and viruses.  It also boost the body’s production of antibodies and interferon, the protein that helps protect us from viral invaders and cancer cells. (Uddoh, 1998).  The importance of vitamin C from citrus fruits in prevention of scurvy was scientifically proven in 1756 by John Lind (Rudolph et al 1978)

 The skin is normally an effective barrier to pathogens, but skin may be broken example by wounding, surgery or the “bites” of insects etc.  Wounds may admit any of the variety of potential pathogens capable of causing systemic disease (disease affecting the entire body) or localized disease.  Bacterial pathogens can enter via “bites” (singleton 1995).  Marmoin et al (1973) state that there are many organisms associated with wound  infections, which are, propionibacterium, Klebsiella, staphylococcus, Escherichia coli etc. superficial infection are skin pustutes, boils, carbunictes, impetize, penphigus, neonatorum, sycosis barbae, paronychia styles, blepheritis and conjunctivitis” infections of accidental and surgical wounds.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Most wound infections are infected by staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and other micro organisms (Bhata et al 1998) vitamin C is said to play important role in protection agaisnt bacterial and viral infection (Okaka et al 2002).  The uptake of orange juice which is rich in vitamin C stimulates the production of white blood cells premarily neutrophils which fight agiasnt bacteria and virus and speeds the healing of wound (Rudolph et al 1978).

It is therefore necessary to carryoput a research work to determine the antibacteria activity of sweet orange on S. aureus and E. coli involved in wound infections

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

  1. To determine the antibacterial effect of orange juice (citurs sinensis) on staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli isolated from wound infection.
  2. To determine the antimicrotial sensistivity pattern of isolated involved

HYPOTEHSES

HO    -        Orange (citrus sinensis) has antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. Coli isolated from wound infection.

Hi      -        Orange (citrus sinensis) has no anti bacterial effect on S. aureues and E.Coli isolated from wound infection.

HII    -        Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are associated with wound infections

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The work is limited to the antibacterial effect of sweet orange (citrus sinensis) to staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

SIGNIFICANCE OF HTESTUDY

The result of this study will determine the antibacteiral activity of citrus sinensis to S. aureus and E.Coli involved in wound infection.  And if the results are favourable then consumption of sweet orange will be advocated, which is safer than consumption of medical drugs which often have side effect to the individuals taking them, As a preventive therapy (since it raises the immune system of the individuals involves).  It is naturally safer to the sweet orange, which is a good item.

Get the complete project »


Instant Share On Social Media:


Can't find what you are looking for?
Call (+234) 07030248044.

OTHER SIMILAR MICROBIOLOGY PROJECTS AND MATERIALS

A PROJECT RESEARCH INTO SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL IN GERIATRIC MEN, COMPERATIVE STUDIES

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 46 ::   Attributes: Abstract  ::   3863 engagements

ABSTRACT Calcium is the most important mineral in the body. The body needs calcium for normal functioning of nerves and muscles including the most important muscles of all which is the heart. Calcium...Continue reading »

AN EPIDEMOLOGY SURVEY FOR SCTRISTOSOMIASIS AMONG PUPILS IN AMAGUNZE COMMUNITY IN NKANU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN EENUGU.

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: N/A ::   Attributes: Abstract, Appendixes  ::   3963 engagements

ABSTRACT The survey of urinary sehistomiass in Ishele in Amagunze, Nkanu East local Government was carried out using two methods of diagnosis i.e combination of questionnaire on clinical signs and sy...Continue reading »

ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY (A CASE STUDY OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC AT UNIVERISTY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL. (UNTH, ENUGU)EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL SCREENING OF WH

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-4 ::   Pages: 52 ::   Attributes: Abstract, Appendix  ::   4850 engagements

ABSTRACT Crysophylum albidum oil was extracted from its seed. The percentage yield was 2.56%. The characterization of the oil showed showed that the refractive index is 1.487, peroxide value is 45.4m...Continue reading »

ANALYSIS OF BUSH PEAR AND ITS OIL

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 91 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract  ::   12411 engagements

ABSTRACT The research project studies the analysis of pear and its oil. The mesocarp from edible African pear “DacryodesEdulis” were evaluated for their oil yield. The pulp from this pear...Continue reading »

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogen ISOLATED FROM WOUND

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 66 ::   Attributes: Abstract  ::   22646 engagements

ABSTRACT Antibacterial activity of honey obtained from two different locations in Enugu State (Nsukka & Ugwuaji) Nigeria on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogens isola...Continue reading »

ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF AFANG LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1 - 5 ::   Pages: 30 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract  ::   5366 engagements

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.0 INTRODUCTION Nanoscience has been the subject of substantial research in recent years. It has been explored by researchers in various fields of sc...Continue reading »

What are looking for today?

WHAT OUR CUSTOMERS ARE SAYING:
  • 1. Abubakar Sani from Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission said "I had a wonderful experience using ProjectClue, they delivered not only on time, but the content had good quality. I recommend ProjectClue for any project research work.".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 2. Ogunniran Olawale from Ekiti state university said "Projectclue is really safe and reliable Quick access to project works Nice customer service Fast delivery of request Recommend this toy fellow students ".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 3. Fahat Nasir from isa kaita college of education dutsinma said "Fish farming a solution unemployment ".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 4. Ajimbi Oluwarotimi from Theology school osun said "Good ".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 5. Clement Abdullahi Ogiji from National Open University of Nigeria said "I am a living witness and have recommended project clue to a lot of students, so far none have been disappointed, very reliable and, trustworthy and dependable".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 6. Jhuee from Sultan national high school said "Good quality. I recommend project clue for any project research work.".
    Rating: Excellent