ProjectClue.com We're Ready, Call Us

(+234) 07030248044

Project Topic:

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Project Information:

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 75 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   63 people found this useful

Project Department:

POLITICAL SCIENCE UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT TOPICS, RESEARCH WORKS AND MATERIALS

Project Body:

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          While in theory the nexus between FDI and growth (in terms of output and productivity) is in general positive, the empirical literature is far less conclusive. Some studies find positive effects from outward FDI for the investing country (Van Pottelsberghe and Lichtenberg, 2001; Nachum et al., 2000), but suggest a potential negative impact from inward FDI on the host country. This results from a possible decrease in indigenous innovative capacity or crowding out of domestic firms ordomestic investment. Thus, in their view and in line with the standard literature on the determinants of FDI (i.e. Dunning’s OLI paradigm, see Dunning 1988) inward FDI is intended to take advantage of host country (locational) characteristics instead of disseminating new technologies originating in the sending country. Other studies report more positive findings: Nadiri (1993) finds positive and significant effects from US sourced capital on productivity growth ofmanufacturing industriesin France, Germany, Japan and the UK. Also Borensztein et al. (1998) finds a positive influence of FDI flows from industrial countries on developing countries’ growth. However, they report also a minimum threshold level of human capital for the productivity enhancing impact of FDI, emphasizing the role of absorptive capacity. Absorptive capacity or minimum threshold levels in a country’s ability to profit from inward FDI is often mentioned in the literature (see also Blomström et al. 1996). Consequently the effect of FDI depends among other things to a large extent on the characteristics of the country that receives FDI.

          Given the critical role of entrepreneurship in economic growth of any nation and considering the absence of adequate technology in developing countries, it is essential to seek for technology transfer. More so, market and access to expertise are crucial to the survival and growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries. Access to expertise allows SMEs to undertake productive investments efficiently and to acquire the latest technologies, thus ensuring their competitiveness and that of the nation as a whole. As opined by Dutse (2008), these latest technologies can be attained through the spill-over effects of FDI. This is because FDI is one of the major channels for transferring new scientific knowledge and related technological innovations. From a priori FDI is therefore an essential impetus to small and medium scale entrepreneurship development in the country. In this regard, FDI facilitates access to markets, access to expertise and most of all access to technology. However the willingness of Multinational Corporations to open their global value chains to local firms has not really metamorphosed into meaningful SMEs development. This therefore raises the question of why the abysmal performance of the SMEs in Nigeria? Furthermore, the pattern of the FDI inflow is often skewed towards extractive industries, meaning that the monumental rate of FDI inflow into Nigeria has been adduced to natural resources, although the size of the local market may also be a consideration (Asiedu, 2001). Invariably there is very little hope of economic development and growth for the country due to problems of socio-economic, political and religious factors. Historically Nigeria is one of the economies in Africa with enormous demand for goods and services and has attracted some FDI over the years. The amount of FDI inflow into Nigeria has reached US$2.23 billion in 2003 and it rose to US$5.31 billion in 2004, this figure rose again to US$9.92 billion in 2005. The volume however turns down vaguely to US$9.44 billion in 2006 (CBN, 2009). The question that comes to mind is do these FDIs essentially contribute to small and medium scale business development in Nigeria? If FDI effectively contributes to growth, then the sustainability of FDI is a worthwhile action and a way of achieving its sustainability is by identifying those factors contributing to its growth with a view to ensuring its enhancement.

          Again, most studies on FDI and growth are cross-country studies. However, FDI and growth debates are country specific. Earlier studies (for instance, Otepola, 2002; Oyejide, 2005; Akinlo, 2004) examine only the importance of FDI on growth and the channels through which it may be benefiting the economy. This study however examines the contributions of FDI to Small and Medium scale businesses with much emphasis on agriculture and transportation sector from 1981 to 2009.

According to a publication onwww.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/11/22/

“The Federal Government’s economic diversification programme may have recorded a head-start as investment groups gather for the ground breaking ceremony of the Enpower Free Trade Zone (ENPOWER FTZ) scheduled by the end of this month with a target to attract N240 billion Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and 20,000 jobs Governor Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi who consolidates on foundation efforts of former Governor Sullivan Chime on the project, was quoted as saying in a statement at the weekend that the ground breaking ceremony for the facility would bear the first set of investment fruits which will give highly needed momentum to his government’s economic diversification programme. According to him, “Enpower FTZ has put in substantial efforts into attracting specific, targeted high-profile investors right from the outset. These anchor investors play an important signaling role to other potential investors, and we expect them to attract a network of suppliers and partners.”The ceremony which holds at the Akanu Ibiam Airport site of the Free Zone is expected to attract up to $500 million (N240 billion) worth of foreign direct investments (FDI) from leading global manufacturing companies. Activities of the industrial clusters hosted in the free zone are also expected to create over 20,000 jobs across three major regions in the country. Licensed by the federal government to operate as a free trade zone in December, 2015, ENPOWER FTZ is a Public-Private initiative with the Enugu State government offering international and domestic investors the benefits of connecting to business opportunities from the South-Eastern cluster, which according to Canback & Company and the McKinsey Global Institute, is the second largest economic cluster in Nigeria, outside of the Lagos Cluster”.

          In the world today, it becomes difficult for business to survive without a form of exchange or another which involves money, ideas, product and technology. As a result, every economy is affected either positively or negatively. Trade can be drawn from the need to exchange, which developed from the barter arrangement to the currency method. Trade in Nigeria, nevertheless, became general with the introduction of the imposing regulation, which brought in their merchandises and made Nigerians their middle men. The implication of this is that Nigerians came to comprehend the necessity for trade both domestically and internationally. International business has remained an area of concern to policy makers. Its significance lies on the capacity to acquire goods which cannot be manufactured in a country or which can only be manufactured at a higher cost. Similarly, it allows a nation to trade its locally produced goods to other countries of the world. The performance of a given economy in terms of growth rates of output and per capita income has not only been based on the domestic production and consumption activities but also on international transaction of goods and services (Jhingan 2006). Small and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs) play very important roles in the process of industrialization and sustainable economic growth (Aremu & Adeyemi, 2011; Terungwa, 2012). Since the 1960s to date, SMEs are being given due recognitions especially in the developed nations for playing very important roles towards fostering accelerated economic growth, development and stability within several economies (Gunu, 2004; Onugu, 2005; Aremu, 2010). They make up the largest proportion of business all over the world and play tremendous roles in employment generation, provisions of goods and services, creating a better standard of living as well as immensely contributing to the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of many countries (Paul, 2010; Ojeka&Mukoro, 2011). In Nigeria, SMEs account for fifty percent to employment on average and also fifty percent of its industrial output. SMEs represent about ninety percent of the industrial sector in terms of number of enterprises or firms, and, however, they contribute a meager one percent of GDP (Ariyo, 2004). Industrial and economic developments are flourished by SMEs in the country through efficient utilization of local resources; production of intermediate goods and services; transformation of rural technology. SMEs are the backbone, and they play a significant role in the business landscape of any country, but there are also faced with a lot of obstacles that make the sector not to contribute optimally to the economy. In this regard, Aregbeyen (1999) argues that the industrial development of Nigeria depends, to a large extent, on the growth and development of SME potentials.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          The underdeveloped/developing nature of the Nigerian economy that essentially hindered the pace of her economic development has necessitated the demand for Foreign Direct Investment into the country. Aremu (2007), noted that Nigeria as one of the developing countries of the world, has adopted a number of measures aimed at accelerating growth and development in the domestic economy, one of which is attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) into the country. According to World Bank (2006), FDI is an investment made to acquire a lasting management interest (normally 10% of voting stock) in a firm or an enterprise operating in a country other than that of the investor defined according to residency. However, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is often seen as an important catalyst for economic growth in the developing countries because it affects the economic growth by stimulating domestic investment, increase in capital formation and also, facilitating the technology transfer in the host countries. (Falki, 2009) It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to investigate influence of foreign direct investment and the development of small and medium scale enterprise in Enugu state, Nigeria.

          The main objective of this study is to examine foreign direct investment and the development of SMEs in Enugu state. But to OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYaid the effective completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objective;

i)                    To examine whether Foreign Direct Investment undermined the development of SMEs in Enugu state, 2007-2017.

ii)                  To examine whether the Enugu state government provided an enabling environment for the development of SMEs in the state, 2007-2017.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research hypotheses were formulated to aid the completion of the study;

i)                    Did Foreign Direct Investment undermine the development of SMEs in Enugu state, 2007-2017?

ii)                  Did the Enugu state government provide an enabling environment for the development of SMEs in the state, 2007-2017?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were formulated to proffer answers to the research questions;

1.      Foreign Direct Investment undermined the development of SMEs in Enugu state, 2007-2017.

2.      Enugu state government provided an enabling environment for the development of SMEs in the state, 2007-2017.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the Enugu state economic planning committee as the study seek to explore the merit of FDI and the merit if any on the growth of SMEs in the state, the study will also be useful to the management of Enugu state investment and development committee as the study will help them formulate policies that will attract FDI to the state. The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the findings of the study will serve as a reference point for further study. Finally, the study will also be useful to academia’s, researchers, students, teachers and the general public as the study will contribute to knowledge and the pool of existing literature.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          The scope of the study covers foreign direct investment and the development of small and medium scale enterprise in Enugu state, 2007-2017, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors which militate against the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.      

b) Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Foreign Direct Investment

A foreign direct investment is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from a foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control.

Productivity

Productivity is an economic measure of output per unit of input. Inputs include labor and capital, while output is typically measured in revenues and other gross domestic product (GDP) components such as business inventories.

Small Medium Enterprises

The Central Bank of Nigeria defines small and medium enterprises in Nigeria according to asset base and number of staff employed. The criteria are an asset base that is between N5 million to 

Get the complete project »

Instant Share On Social Media:

OTHER SIMILAR POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECTS AND MATERIALS

PROPAGANDA IN POLITICS: THE USE OF LANGUAGE FOR EFFECT IN ELECTIONEERING CAMPAIGN

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 79 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   8883 engagements

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Propaganda is one unique device of politics. This is mostly observed in any electioneering campaign. Longe and Ofuanu (1996:17) argue that propaganda is solely introduced to...Continue reading »

AN APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 76 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   5404 engagements

ABSTRACT The study is to appraise the role of government in poverty alleviation in Nigeria with a special reference to National Poverty Eradication Programme NAPEP. The research introduces the backgr...Continue reading »

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN THE NIGER DELTA (A CASE STUDY OF THE AMNESTY PROGRAMME)

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 79 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   8855 engagements

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The Niger Delta area is the most fragile region in Nigeria. The presence of oil and gas in the region makes it the goose that lays the golden egg, th...Continue reading »

CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA; A THREAT TO SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 80 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   11920 engagements

CHAPTER ONE​ 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Amuwo (2005) and Obayelu (2007) consider corruption as the exploitation of public position, resources and power for private gain. Fjeldstad&Isaksen (20...Continue reading »

CROSS BORDER CRIMES AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ECOWAS MEMBER STATES: THE NIGERIA EXPERIENCE

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 80 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Over the years various activities across the borders of ECOWAS member states have hindered sustainable economic growth and development in the U...Continue reading »

DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF ASABA, LGA)

 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 73 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,Abstract  ::   5791 engagements

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The Nigerian state assumed a new governance status in 1999 following the demise of authoritarian regime in the country. Military dictatorship was re...Continue reading »

What are looking for today?

WHAT OUR CUSTOMERS ARE SAYING:
  • 1. Jamilu Idris Muhd from Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa said "very wonderful effort".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 2. Abubakar Khalifah @Pkhal_Official from Bayero university kano (BUK) said "Indeed very knowledgeable and helpful. EXCELLENT!!!".
    Rating: Excellent
  • 3. Rabi At Babandi Ibrahim from Federal University gwagwalada said "Thanks very much for your wonderful and amazing solution may the almighty god help you ameen ".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 4. Rabi At Babandi Ibrahim from Federal University gwagwalada said "Thanks very much for your wonderful and amazing solution may the almighty god help you ameen ".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 5. Harry Harris Haniel from Ahmadu Bello University said "Good content ".
    Rating: Very Good
  • 6. Abdulrah-man Abdullahi from University of Benin said "A big thanks to the team for the effort exerted towards the completion of this academic piece. Projectclue shall always be referred to those seeking academic assistance.".
    Rating: Excellent

Leave a comment: