Matters of security are topical in today’s Nigeria. Life has always been precarious in the country it is subject to all manner of dangers. In the first place it is obtained a victim of killer disease such as malaria, small pox, HIV/AIDS among others. In addition to threats from diseases, are threats that man-made. In the past, we use to fear for the security of our property from armed robbers. Today, we fear for our lives from kidnappers, political and economic related assassination and extra judicial killings. This has rapidly become a familiar feature of our landscape. The impact of this massive sense of insecurity on both psychic and overall functioning of Nigeria cannot be over estimated. (Wali, O.E.2012: 4).
The issues of national security is very vital in any nation in fact once security is not guaranteed in any nation it economic development will be greatly be affected since no investor put his/her money in an environment of crisis. More so the citizen can only exert their best potentials in the right peaceful environment. (Sodangi, I. 2011: 1).
Thus, security situation determine the ground within the democratization process could be practice and participation of the populace could be enhanced, safe and peaceful environment is where citizens could exert the best of their potentials. Is the environment safe for democratization? Is there tendency for proper participation? And channels for participation in the environment? And what then is democratization?
The term democratization attracted attention in political science literature in the 1990’s when the democracy movement was sweeping across the world. This movement brought about changes in the governmental systems this countries in eastern Europe and the former soviet union and Africa, where before the movement these countries were characterized with one party military and communist rule Nwabueze (1993) conceive democratization as not just concern with the form of government known as democracy as being synonymous with multiparty system, but as a process of experimentation during which certain basic conditions have to be put in place.
“Yahaya (2007) in Alumona, I.M (2010) wrote that democratization is both a procedural and institutional aspect of liberalizing a previously authoritarian political environment. It will consist of opening up a previously closed authoritarian political system and deepening and expanding of values thought to be necessary for the enrichment and sustenance of democracy. In essence, it is about the construction of a system that allows for the bulk of the populace to participate in the decision making process that has direct bearing upon their lives.”
This research will examine the concept of insecurity and its various manifestation using concrete examples. It will check the rising threats to lives and property across Nigeria and the poor living condition of many Nigerians. This research will also identify the challenges insecurity possess to the democratization in Nigeria’s democracy is endangered as political intolerance and economic frustration gathered momentum in the form assassination, intimidation, threats and hostage taking across Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Democratization process encompasses aspects of human participation in the decision making process, administration of the economic activities, election and political activities, party system and issues of democracy in its practice but the question begging for answer are:
Is the situation of security challenges favorable for the democratization process to the proper for development? Are there security challenges severe to halt the issues of democratization in the country? What is the meaning of insecurity and are the features of insecurity present in the country at the present? What are the causes of insecurity? To what extent has the Nigerian government gone in fighting the insecurity of lives and property? What are the challenges by insecurity to the democratization process? What are the possible way out or what are the solution to the problems identified?
These and some other issues can be dealt with in the process of presentation of the literature, data presentation and analysis.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the research is to find out what are the security challenges and democratization in Nigeria, other objective of the study are:
To find out whether the security situation determine the ground within the democratization of the populace could be enhanced.
2. To find out whether democratization is both procedural and institutional aspect of liberalizing a previously authoritarian political environment.
3. To offer a useful suggestion and recommendation on how the challenges can be overcome.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Over the years, there have been constant search for solution to the issues of security challenges by individuals and institutions and in some extent there is the need for clarity of what exactly are these challenges. This study will help policy and decision makers, the politicians, political and economic analysts, students of political science and economics, the community developed states and all sundry to indentify the security challenges and how to prevent the challenges from the further impact into the other sectors of life especially the democratization and development.
The following questions will be attempted in the data presentation and analysis
What are the cause of insecurity?
2. Why the security challenges?
3. How are the security challenges affecting the democratization process in Nigeria?
4. In what ways lack of security undermines political participation?
5. Is democratization process improved or hindered within the current democratic dispensation despite the security problems in the country?
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Arising from the problems stated above the following hypothesis are formulated for the research
There is significant relationship between security challenges and democratization in Nigeria
2. There is significant relationship between challenges and environmental safety for democratization
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
This section is concerned with how the data are gathered and obtained for the study, it is imperative to note that the methodology for this research involves both primary and secondary source f data.
The primary source of data: questionnaire administration will be conducted to gather opinion, views and information about issues in security challenges and democratization in Nigeria. In respect to the questionnaire administration in sourcing primary data about the security issues other issues about challenges, Kano Kaduna and Katsina metropolis would be the center for the questionnaire administration.
The secondary source of data like: textbooks, journals, articles, newspapers, government policies and other relevant materials especially online materials which contribute most of today’s studies with enough eBooks, e-Journal, etc. will be used.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research is concern mainly with the issues of security challenges and democratization in Nigeria. The research will be limited within the security challenges and democratization though in the literature review, reference to prior events or incidence will be discussed, and Kano Kaduna and Katsina metropolis will be the central concern of this research.
OUTLINE OF CHAPTER
This research is intended to be made as follows: chapter one is the general introduction which include statement of the research problem, significance and scope of the study, method of data of data collection and outline of the chapters.
Chapter two is composed of literature review, which include ideas and conceptions of different scholars on security challenges in Nigeria and how affects the democratization process and theoretical framework.
Chapter three is the examination of historical background of insecurity situation in Nigeria and the political democratic development since independence.
Chapter four covers the examination of the research findings regarding the research question and analysis on the challenges of insecurity from the data collected and its impact in the democratization process in Nigeria.
Chapter five is the summary, recommendation and conclusion on how Nigeria can achieve a consolidated democratization, proper democracy peaceful coexistence and stability in the polity.
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