1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In recent years, there has been surge in both tempo and range of global insurgencies that get transformed into terrorist’s activities. Nigeria became one a recent addition to the list of states affected through the activities of the Boko Haram sect. According to Aderele 2012, insurgency is rebellion against a constituted authority. It is a movement unlawful by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land. Insurgence can be cloaked in politics, economic, religious, and ethnic or a combination of factors. Each share different specifics but have the propensity to disrupt the central government by means considered illegal by the government. Insurgent groups have emerged at different points and in different forms in Nigeria's political history. Some of these insurgent groups include.
1. The then Eastern Nigeria Biafran Sectarian Group of the Civil War
2. The Movement for Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)
3. The Odua people's Congress (OPC) in the South West
4. The now Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) in the East.
5. The Northern region has always been a very fertile ground for religious activism, the beginning with the Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio in the early 18 century.
The situation in the north is more manifest because of its relatively monolithic character. Many fundamentalist religious groups, the most prominent being the Maitatsine sect had evolved through several religious uprisings. The Maitatsine movement under the leadership of Alhaji Marrwa Maitatsine, an immigrant, was made up of a bunch of religious fanatics. Their modes of operation were assault and murder of both the rich and poor, irrespective of religious learning, who in their reasoning were not conducting themselves according to the dictates of the Quran. According to Ajayi 2012, the half –hearted implementation of the sharia laws especially the double standard or duplicity involved in the Northern States of Sokoto, Kano and Bornu elicited the justifiable anger of the puritanical Maitatsine group which proceeded to spearhead religious uprising in Kano (twice in 1950) and later Yola and Maiduguri in 1982 and 1983 respectively. Evidently, the Boko Haram sect has its root and drew inspiration from the Maitatsine in terms of objectives, but its organization, planning, armed resistance and modus operandi are more in tune with the Taliban in Afghanistan. The actual date when Boko Haram evolved in Nigeria remains unresolved. The years 1995, 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003 have been freely ascribed to it The root of the Boko Haram is traced to a group known as Shabaab Muslim Youth Organization in 1995 that later became the Boko Haram in 2000. Boko Haram by translation means Western Education is forbidden is officially known as Jama'atuAhlis Suma Liddalawati Wail –Jihad, meaning people committed to the propagation of the prophet's teachings and Jihad. It was established by an Islamic cleric Mustapha ModuJon, but popularly called Mohammed Yusuf. Boko Haram maintained a shadowy exist enceuntil 1999 when Mohammed Yusuf was extra judicially executed in 2009while he was in the police custody. Yusuf successfully radicalized the group and exposed them to foreign collaboration with other fundamentalist Islamic group like the Al-Qaeda. With this inspiration from Yusuf, the group stepped up its activism. Yusuf established his own mosque in Maiduguri which became the headquarters of the group as well as the dispersal center of the doctrine which sees Western education and democracy as corruptive and immoral. His followers were largely illiterate youths, some of whom are school drop outs or petty itinerant traders and array of jobless drifters, especially the Almajiris who bonded and escalated their activities especially after the death of Yusuf their leader. According to Ogonor 2000, international relations in very broad terms refer to all activities, public and private, that extends or has the potential of extending beyond the territorial boundaries of a state. Ogaba 2002, see it as a field that embraces all intercourse and interactions among states and all movements of people, goods and ideas across national frontiers. It is a field that analyzes foreign policies and political processes between States. States can be said to be the major actors in international relation hence it can be seen to be concerned with the processes by which sovereign states adjusts their national interests to one another. The consequences of the Boko Haram activities no doubt have gone beyond the territorial boundaries of Nigeria and impacted on Nigeria's external relations. In response to the escalating violence perpetrated by the group, the Nigerian government responded with military force. However, after many years of these responses without success, especially as Nigeria's borders with Cameroun, Chad and Niger provided escape routes for the insurgents; Nigeria sought the cooperation of these neighbors to checkmate a growing menace. Moreover, the initial nonchalant attitudes of these neighbors were overwhelmed by the Boko Haram attacks exposing their vulnerability. The African Union, though did not intervene directly, their influence were invaluable in getting military co-operation of these States after an authorization for the establishment of a Multi-national Joint Task Force (MNJF), requested by member states of the Lake Chad Basin. Eventually between fifth to seventh of February, 2015 a Planning Conference was held in Yaoundé, Cameroun to develop the MNJF's concept of operations. It was agreed that an 8,700 international stirring force headquartered in N'Djamena, Chad be established and authorized to exercise the right of hot pursuit. Other countries like South Africa, Brazil, U.S.A, Russia and Israel have been involved through promises and assistance ranging from supply of weaponry, financial supports, military training on insurgency and sharing of security intelligence.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It was never given much thought that it will come to a point in the history of Nigeria when suicide bombing and other terrorist activities will become a front burner in national discuss. However, with the activities of the radical Islamic sect Boko Haram, it is manifest that Nigeria is not immune from terrorism. Hitherto, Nigeria was able to manage such uprising within a short time by the application of a superior military force as employed against Maitatsine in the 1970s. This strategy has not been successful against Boko Haram whose activity threatens Nigeria national capability as well as international relations. Boko Haram insurgency which is threatening towards becoming an intractable conflict has been a source of concern to Nigeria and the international community. This development has necessitated research into the origin, activities and effects of the insurgency that has proved to be an effective threat to the sovereignty of Nigerian government. America has been cooperating with Nigeria security forces within the guideline of bilateral or multilateral arrangements, by providing funds and training in order to improve her professionalism and ability to combat insurgency. Considering that Boko Haram could thrive in Nigeria despite their support may warrant the American government and security forces to relapse on their rigorous pursuit of cordial relationship with Nigeria. America might decide to review the content of its military-security partnership with Nigeria to guarantee a better result in the fight against Boko Haram. Despite U.S. support and training to Nigeria security forces and deployment of joint security task force to quell the insurgency, it has refused to be silent. Boko Haram persists in massive destruction of lives and properties, increasing the atmosphere of terror in and outside the shores of Nigeria. The group has edged the Nigerian government to a point where it becomes increasingly difficult to execute some of its domestic and foreign policies. Further lapses in the Nigeria security forces might make the nation porous, especially its airport and oil region which can lead to direct attack on America and her interest. As an ally with Nigeria, the U.S. is caught in the web of another belligerent terrorist group that threatens her interest as it persistently develops. Boko Haram insurgency is a problem to Nigeria’s relations with the U.S. in that Africa Command (AFRICOM), an American strategy to caution terrorism in Africa, has not been fully approved by the Nigerian government. According to Ugwueze (2013), due to the financial strain of war on America Budget and other considerations, it is increasingly reducing and opposing the use of military force in quelling insurgency. However this appears to be the major appeal for the Nigerian government. Nigeria and U.S. relations are obvious in the areas of military-security alliance, trade and investment, humanitarian aid and support. These areas are not totally exempted from the scourge of Boko Haram insurgency. There are various possible responses from foreign countries towards the domestic insurgency in Nigeria that is becoming an international threat. Many nations including the U.S. may seek to take advantage of the situation to build a stronger tie with Nigeria or sabotage and subjugate the nation to reduce its reach as an African hegemon. Due to the unfolding events in Boko Haram insurgency and Nigeria’s relations with U.S the study will analyze the international response of the international relations to this security challenges.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine analysis of international responses to domestic challenges in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: International communities have not responded positively to the domestic security challenges in Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between international relation response and security challenge in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, this study provides updated information to scholastic works. There are recent developments in Boko Haram insurgency and Nigeria’s relations with the U.S. that this study contributes to the few available literatures on the topic. This study focuses on international response to domestic security challenges in Nigeria. It contributes to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on international relations and how nations in the international system react and coordinate their relationships in the face of daunting terrorism challenge. The practical significance on the other hand is to bring to the fore the effects of the international reactions on Nigerian society. The study also makes contribution for a successful counter insurgency by analyzing the response of both countries in confronting the challenges of Boko Haram insurgency. This research is relevant as the topic under study is a current phenomenon; it is one of the issues that tops national priority and attracts world attention.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on analysis of international response to domestic security challenges in Nigeria, a case study of Boko Haram insurgency.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Insurgency: Is defined as an organized movement aimed at the overthrow or destruction of a constituted government through the use of subversion, espionage, terrorism and armed conflict. Insurgencies normally seek to overthrow the existing social order and reallocate power within the country.
Security: The state of being free from danger, threat or a state of being safe, as well as the measures taken to be safe or protected.
Insecurity: The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury”, Insecurity is also seen as the anxiety you experience when you feel vulnerable. The main descriptive phrases and words that are central to understanding what constitute insecurity include: a state of danger, anxiety and susceptibility to harm or injury. Another meaning for insecurity is violence. Violence can therefore be defined as extreme natural force, often causing great damage; Extreme strength of feelings that can cause emotional shock.
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