1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Globally, the tourism sector is one of the largest and fastest growing industries and is a significant contributor to national and local economies around the world. Tourism represents far more than just travel for leisure and holidays. Tourism encompasses travel for education, health, religion, conventions and conferences, general business travel and visiting friends and relatives. Tourism is an industry that contributes to the world economy. In fact, some countries’ economies derive most of their revenues from tourism. Engaging in tourism activities without taking climate conditions into consideration is not unthinkable issue, because a tourism activity has a strong relationship with the climatic or weather conditions. Tourism is a component of various activities that depend on Meteorology (weather) and climatology (long term climate change). Unfavourable climate or change in weather can to a large extent affect the planner’s decision (activities of the tourist), operations comforts, planning of tourist decisions and flow of tourist (WWTC, 2000). Adverse weather conditions has been known to cause flight delays, cancellations and re-routing which have a ways of affecting tourist movement. In recent times, it has been observed that the climate is changing adversely. Climate change has become an issue of great concern to nations globally. Climate information is vital for planning the daily activities of tourists who will always want to make best use of their holiday. Since climatic factors play significant roles in influencing tourists’ behaviour and the Nigerian government has recently chosen tourist development in her guest for economic diversification. Therefore, there is no doubt that the tourism industry may be affected greatly if current climate change continues without combating it globally. This paper is an attempt to discuss effects of climate change on tourism participation with a view to check climate change effects on tourism activities in Nigeria. In the past several years, there has been a growing concern over the effect of global warming on the climate. All around the world, climate changes are becoming more evident, causing flooding and extreme temperatures in different nations. Weather patterns have become unpredictable, which means that summer periods could be extended or winter may be longer than usual. Climate change is causing several changes in temperature which in turn affects people socially and economically. Soon after the industrial revolution, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has shown a sharp increasing trend, compared to the pre-industrial era. This increased CO2 is caused by a global greenhouse phenomenon. The shift in climate pattern and changing global temperature in response to the greenhouse phenomenon in general is termed as climate change. This irreversible phenomenon is causing glacier melting of Greenland, Greater Himalayas region and other places around the world (Blunier and Brook, 2013; Beniston 2003). Human-induced changes to the environment started causing major socio-economic issues at the industrial level, catching major attention around the globe. Tourism is a major industry that gets affected by climate change. These disturbances in the weather and their impact on the environment are significant to the tourism industry. The tourism industry is dependent on the predictability of the season in order to attract travellers who want to experience different activities related to the season. Climate change and tourism are too diverse words, however interrelated due to the impact on each other. The study conducted by Peters (2007) concluded that, climate change impacts on tourism, tourism on the other hand also impact climate change. Shedding more light on this conception, Hernandez and Ryan (2011) argue that emissions from tourism activities including transport and accommodation cause global warming and at the same time, climate change results and threatens the loss of natural resources such as landscapes, water, biodiversity, coastlines that make a destination attractive and on which tourism depends. This goes further to suggests that whilst there is a contribution from tourism through emissions to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses, climate change also determines tourists flow and demand due to climatic variables on the different destinations. Defining climate change, Ijeomah and Aiyeloja (2009) stated that it is a collective pattern of expression of weather elements over time and this include temperature, rainfall, dew, humidity, wind, sunshine, mist and cloud. Similarly, Yahaya et al. (2011) refer to climate change as a change in weather conditions that result from direct or indirect human activities that alter the atmospheric composition of the earth leading to global warming. Tourism on the other hand involves the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual domicile environment for not more than one consecutive year for the purpose of leisure, business and other purposes not remunerated (Olorunfemi and Raheem, 2008; Ayeni, 2012). These definitions show that tourism is climate sensitive; and presently, virtually all the continents are experiencing a form of climate change or the other. These, as noted by Prideaux et al. (2009) includes changes such as reduced snow fall, flooding, more intense fire, severe drought, retreating glaciers and other impacts globally. As such, all tourists’ destinations must adapt to the impacts climate change, minimize actions and activities that contribute to the risk of increasing to; rapid rise in temperature, and increase in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gasses (Scott et al., 2012; Ijeomah and Aiyeloja, 2009). Presently, tourism in Nigeria is still at its lowest ebb; with the government looking at diversifying the Nigerian economy through tourism and with current climatic challenges in Nigeria only suggest that this industry is also vulnerable to the climate change crisis. But with climate changes, the tourism industry is affected in various ways. Climate changes can directly or indirectly affect the local destinations, which need to retain their appeal to foreign visitors in order for the industry to flourish.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Tourism reached an estimated 806 million international arrivals in 2005, recording an annual average growth of 6.5%. Although its importance within the national and local economies can vary depending on the destination, in some extreme cases it can represent the local main economic engine. Research also shows that climate, referred to as the pattern of meteorological manifestations, has a key influence on the way tourist activities are developed; at the same time is also recognized that a particular destination’s climate acts upon its environment and is likely to be included within the parameters that take part in the choice-making process of the tourist when planning his holidays (R.Gaita, 2007). Climate change and tourism both have a direct and an indirect impact on one another. Seeman (2004) stated that not only does climate change and variation have an impact on tourism, but also an indirect impact because of changes in resources that are part of the tourism product offerings. The effects of climate change on tourism cause changes in the ecosystems and natural resources needed to sustain the tourism economy. Climate-change impacts that affect tourism in most countries include: beach erosion, saline intrusion, droughts, flash floods and landslides, coral-reef bleaching, less productive fisheries and agricultural systems, changes in the preferences of tourists, etc. Studies reveal that there are some climate-induced challenges facing African countries in general (Uchegbu and Kanu, 2011). Natural disasters, such as rising sea levels, flooding, desertification, erosion and other health related problems, are now rampant in so many countries. These serious issues, most of which have been linked to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), could be addressed in part by change of habit and new ways of thinking to reduce the effect on tourism in Nigeria. Tourism also has a negative impact on the climate which can also lead to climate change. The emission of GHGs from tourist vehicles and planes, the burning of fossil fuel, the destruction of the vegetation to develop tourist facilities etc all go a long way to affect the climate in one way or the other. Climate change may provoke shifts in tourist flows, with large economic implications. Climate Change has been the subject of debate globally and locally for more than two decades. Climate Change implications for tourism, and tourism implications for climate change represent a relatively recent facet of this discussion on global level. This study aims at surveying whether this aspect of the global debate has any reflection locally, and what are its attributes.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The aim of the research work is to examine climate change and its effect on tourism activities in Nigeria; other specific objectives of the study are stated below as follows:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses are formulated:
H0: There is no significant effect of climate change on tourism activities in Edo state
H1: There is a significant effect of climate change on tourism activities in Edo state
H0: There is no significant relationship between climate change and tourism activities in Edo state.
H02: There is significant relationship between climate change and tourism activities in Edo state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to inform, educate, sensitize and enlighten the general public, government and road transport company owners on the impact of transportation in the tourism industry.
This study aims at reminding the government-both state and federal of the ever-poor state of our roads and the need to look into putting them in good shapes.
Road transport companies like ‘The Young Shall Grow Motors” and “Efex express’’ needs to review their services in other not to lose customers to their competitors and to equally promote tourism in Nigeria.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other. It will be of great benefit also to the industry as it would help know the strength of the general public that still believe in and patronize road transportation, also the future prospects of tourists involving in road transportation.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on climate change and its effect on tourism activities in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 AREA OF STUDY
The study is Kosofe Local Government Area which is located on a land area of approximately 81km2 and a total population of 665, 998(2015 census)
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tourist: Someone who satisfies the conditions of travelling at least fifty miles from home for any period of less than a year and that while they are away, they spend money in the place they visit without earning it there (Morley, 2010).
Effect: The Collins dictionary defines effect to be the action of an object hitting another or the force in which one object influences another.
Climate: According to advanced Collins dictionary, Climate is defined as a long-term weather patterns that describe a region or the general weather conditions of a particular place usually above 30 years.
Climate Change: This a long-term change in the statistics of weather expressed as a probable change in mean or extreme weather conditions. The UNFCC’s (1994) definition specifically refers to climate change as the influence of human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere, which is in addition to natural climate variability. Climate variability refers to variations in the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events (Christensen et al. 2007).
Tourism: This is the Temporary short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work, and activities during their stay at these destinations; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions (Tourism Society, 1976).
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