1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Housing or shelter has been widely accepted as the second most important essential human need after food. Housing in all its ramifications is more than a mere shelter since it makes a community a more habitable environment. Though the countries of the world differs greatly in their level of industrial, social, economic and political development, the importance of housing and its related facilities are vital elements in determining the standard of living (Afolabi & Dada, 2014). The facilities includes roads, water, environment and others amenities that makes the dwellers to live comfortable (Ajibola et al., 2012). As an integral parts of development process, the government needs to take a major share of responsibility for improving the level of providing housing at a cheaper price for the people. With the recession period, Nigeria is experiencing, the
Government is faced with challenges to provide housing for the masses especially for those in the urban areas. The effort had been made by the Government in the past but they are not adequate especially for the middle earners (Mabogunje, 2015). However, the purpose had not been successful because those that need these housings could not afford it (Ajayi et al, 2016). Shelter or housing is a complex product that is crucial for national development in terms of both economy and welfare. Housing is an important source of national capital formation, of employment generation) and income production in macroeconomics. In most countries residential investment ranges from between 15% and 25% of gross fixed capital formation (GFCF). Housing investment at such significant levels stimulates the demand for labour in the construction and building materials industries and thus affects income production in the economy. Housing is a significant component of household consumption and savings in microeconomic terms. In developing countries expenditure on housing, on the average, accounts for between one-seventh and one-fifth of all consumer expenditures. In addition, for the majority of households, this investment is one of the primary objectives for savings. For low-income families these welfare and economic connotations are particularly significant. Housing provides a combination of services, the first and most basic of which is the shelter offered by the dwelling space. Second, in conjunction with the services of land and utilities, the dwelling provides a variety of environmental services: water supply, sewage and solid waste disposal, energy use, and so on. Third, there is a range of locational advantages, including access to jobs, health and education facilities, and recreation areas. However the main reason why Nigeria’s case is chronic is due to the share volume of our population (close to 200 Million) and an urban ratio of almost 47% living in few cities. Most of these studies (Omojinmi, 2009; Olanrewaju, 2010; Olotuah 2015; Olotuah & Aiyetan, 2006) have confirmed the inadequacy in the housing circumstances of Nigerians, in particular the low-income population. The housing circumstances of low-income earners, who incidentally constitute the vast majority of the population in Nigeria, have not shown any significant improvement over the years. There is the incidence of massive rural urban drift, which has been occasioned by the lack of development of the rural areas, the urban bias of government in locating public infrastructure, and the poor economic conditions of the rural dwellers. The incidence of large population in some urban centres in Nigeria has created severe housing problems, resulting in overcrowding in inadequate dwellings, and in a situation in which 60% of Nigerians can be said to be “houseless persons” (Federal Government of Nigeria, FGN, 2013). The housing need in Nigeria is increasing by the day, whereas the vast majority of the population lacks the wherewithal to make effective demand on housing. The private sector, which is the major supplier of housing in Nigeria, faces a number of problems inhibiting it from meeting the ever increasing needs. The public sector has fared badly in housing provision. A major reason for the debacle in past public sector programmes in housing is traceable to inadequate knowledge of the nature, scope and dimension of the housing problems in both the rural and urban areas of the country, and to the myopic and narrow concept of the housing needs of the Nigerian populace. As asserted by Agbola (2009) the absence of research on housing is a lag in the housing development system in developing countries, especially Nigeria. On this note, this paper examines the housing development and problems in Nigeria, the appraisal and criticisms of the national housing policy, vis-à-vis the way forward.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is estimated that over one billion people live absolutely in bad shelter and unhealthy environment. Nigeria, although with less critical problems compared to other developing countries, records the highest urbanization rate of recent. Most of this growth is absorbed in the slums and a squatter settlement of the cities and towns, while in Nigeria, the situation is quite critical. It is estimated that over 60 million out of the estimated population of 140 million people inhabit the urban areas. Housing apart from food is seen as one of the necessities of mankind. This is because it contributes to the physical and moral health of a nation which at the same time brings about social stability, work efficiency and the development of individual. Inspite of its importance, housing in quantitative terms is still one of the major problems facing the government and the urban dwellers. The accommodation problem in urban centres can also be attributed to stagnant housing development and holding of undeveloped plots by owners instead of selling to those ready to develop. Though, various tools might have been put in place concerning the administration of land, there are still a whole lot of problems being faced on and matters in the state. Subject to the Land Use Act S. 1 of 1978 which states that "all land comprised in the territory of each state in the federation are hereby vested in the State Governor of that state and such land shall be held in trust and administered for the use and common benefit of all Nigerians in accordance with the provision of this Act", administration of land in each state of the federation is supposed to be easier and better for the benefit of all states but 32years after the promulgation of this act, this aim is far from being achieved. Vesting of land in State Governors has created powerful systems of authority and political patronage. The question now is whether the land tenure system adopted in the state actually ensures the availability of land to all and sundry like it claims, whether people have access to land the way they should and the overall effect of this system on sustainable housing development.
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the evaluation of the impact of housing development in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H1: There is a significant impact of housing on sustainable development in Sagamu L.G.A.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to provide a comprehensive analysis of the present situation of housing development and maintenance in the study area. It also seeks to bring to the limelight of government, policy makers, individuals, building construction professionals, national environmental agency and housing researchers the potentials and relevance of carrying out research into the development and maintenance of housing in terms of improving the quality and quantitative problems experienced in the housing sector. In addition, this work seeks to bring to the awareness of developers, agencies in the housing sector, individual and landowners the effect of the immediate environment on housing and to proffer solutions to some of the inherent problems, if not all, in order to maintain a good quality housing standard. The study will be of help to students and researchers. It will also be readily available for academic consumption.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on evaluation of the impact of housing development in Sagamu L.G.A, Ogun state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: The actions of one object coming forcibly into contact with another, a marked effect or influence.
Building: A relatively permanent enclosed construction over a plot of land, having a roof and usually windows and often more than one level, used for any of a wide variety of activities, as living, entertaining or manufacturing.
Construction: Clearing, dredging, excavating, and grading of land and other activity associated with buildings, structures, or other types of real property such as bridges, dams, roads.
Urban Areas: Is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have non-agricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. "Urban area" can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs
Housing Development: A group of individual dwellings or apartment houses typically of similar design that are usually built and sold or leased by one management.
OTHER SIMILAR URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING PROJECTS AND MATERIALS