Depreciation is one of the most controversial and troublesome areas in accounting.
Depreciation was actually a cost of doing business. Business executive tended to view depreciation as a matter of setting aside something during prosperous periods for the replacement of depreciable assets. When earnings are high, large amounts of depreciation might be recorded and when earnings were low or less provision for depreciation was recorded. Today, it is universally agreed that depreciation is an expenses that must be recorded whether or not revenue is sufficient to absorb it.
Depreciation has been given different interpretations and meanings by various authors and experts in the accounting field as a result many definitions of depreciation exist as many as the authors and experts themselves.
Some of the numerous definitions of the term depreciation as defined by many authors will be examined.
The institute of chartered accountant of Canada defined depreciation as a proportionate charge of an expanse to an accounting period based the cost as other recorded value of fixed assets. Himmed Clan (third international congress on accounting defined depreciation as the price spreading the value of a fixed asset.
Montgomery (auditing theory and practice) defined depreciation as an allocation of the entire cost of depreciable assets to the operating express of a series of fiscal period.
The American Institute of Certified public Accountants defined depreciation accounting as a system of accounting which aims to distribute the cost or other basic value (if any) over the estimated useful life of the unit which may be a group of assets in a systematic and rational manner.
Depreciation is a part of the cost of a fixed asset is not recoverable on disposal and is this part of the cost of fixed assets consumed during its period of use by the firm. It is an expense, which is charged to the profit and loss account of a period before ascertaining the real net profit or loss of an enterprise.
Depreciation is sometimes divided into two classes:
Internal depreciation which arises from the operation of any cause natural to or inherent in the asset itself for instance, wear and tear of plant and machinery.
External depreciation which arises from the operation of forces apart from the assets itself for instance obsolescence, inadequacy and decay.
Depreciation according Walter Mergs is that portion of the cost of fixed assets that is deductible from revenue for the asset services used in the operations of the business. In practice, the term depreciation is used to describe the cost of the expired services of tangible fixed assets.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
Most people are not aware of the resultant effect of adopting one depreciation method or another on the reported profits and in the net book value of assets stated in the financial statement of a business concern and so they tend to pass erroneous judgment on the profitability or performance comparison between companies by mere looking at either reported profit in the financial statement. It is therefore imperative that research be conducted to find the following problems:
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
The general objectives of the work are to assess depreciation accounting practices and profitability of selected SMEs in Port harcout
For the purpose of the following hypothesis will test on generalization of the impact of different methods of depreciation on the profitability of a company.
H0 The different methods of depreciation do not have an impact on the profitability of a company.
H1 The different methods of depreciation have an impact on the profitability of a company.
H0 Depreciation does not have any impact on management decisions.
H1 Depreciation has an impact on management decisions.
THE SIGNIFICATION OF STUDY.
B Reduce tax payable to the government by reducing the company’s profit.
The study will also portray the reason. Why our also tax law disallow depreciation, but instead provide capital allowance for the purpose of computing income tax.
THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project covers the depreciation accounting practices and profitability of selected SMEs in portharcourt. It includes the impact of depreciation accounting on income statement reporting in perspective.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In a study of this nature, a lot of limitation is bound to occur. It will be left to the researcher to strive to achieve the list he could inspite of this limitation:
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