Background of study
Union Bank of Nigeria plc is one of the first generation banks started to the colonial era. Formally known as Baraclays bank DCO (Dominion Colonial and Overseas) it was opened in1917.
In compliance with the directive of the government in 1968, that all companies (Including Banks) must be incorporated locally in Nigeria in1969 and its name was consequently changed to Baraclays Banks of Nigeria Limited with its registered Head office at 40 Marina Lagos.
As a result of Nigerian Enterprises promotion decree of 1972 and 1977, the federal government of Nigeria acquired 52% of the Bank shares Leaving 40% for Barclays Bank international ltd (Now Baraclays-Bank plc) while the remaining 8% was taken up by the Nigerian public Baraclays Bank plc sold 20% of its shares to Nigerian in 1979 and the remaining 2% in June 1989. Thus, it became an indigenous bank wholly managed by Nigerians. And the name was changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Limited. In 1990 the name was further changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Plc. The bank is one of the commercial bank that survives and strives during the nations economic unsteadiness. Union bank of Nigeria plc currently has her corporate head office at 40 marina Lagos. This Head office building “The STALLION PLAZA” is a 32 story edifice and is now the most magnificent and tallest building in Africa.
The bank now has 9 Area office branches, including full indigenous branch in LONDON and SOUTH AFRICA respectively. It has 5 staff training centres with on LAGOS, IBADAN, PORT-HARCOURT, ZARIA JOS. The bank which is regarded as the largest employer of labour in banking industry in Nigeria, now has a staff strength of 8 workers. It has some group of company such as union merchant bank, union assistance and union Homes.
The bank is about 75% computerian and has an outstanding record in term of profitability. As at Septembers 30th 1998 bank’s gross earnings total assets and deposit base stood at N13.8 billion N102.4 billion and N77 billion respectively.
The principle and consent of budgeting centres around the optional allocation scarce resources. Resources are limited but human wants are not only unlimited but also multifarious. In order to make the best use of available resources, the principle of budgeting has to be adopted.
Every business organization, government, sole propertor and banks employs the principle of budgeting as a control strategy. Even individuals like salary earners hardly know that they are adopting the principle of budgeting when at the end of the month, they try to reconcile their monthly salaries with their expenses for the month.
The budgetary control strategy calls for the preparation of plane in the form of ideas and values for the future. Budgeting cannot be performed in isolation. This is one of the reasons that all managers should be financially aware because almost every decision taken will have financial implication and will therefore effect other department, even if this means they have less money available for their Own budget.
Clearly, once a budget has been established it is necessary to set up control and procedures which enables the budget to be monitored.
Budgetary control is the establishment of budget relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirement of actual with budgeted results either to secure by individual action the objective of the policy or the provide basis for its revision. It should be pointed out that there is on significant difference between the principles of budgeting control in either the banks or public sectors, the statement implies that as budgets are established for various elements of the bank managers are given responsibility foe the management of budget resources in those.
Clearly, a strategy require information which has to be related to the delegate responsibilities within the bank, these should be related to the objectives of the budget and then be monitored as out turn figures become available. Overall, it was felt that the budgetary control process and demand that it places on financial management skills represents the major challenges of change being faced by the bank.
The budget can be a powerful tools for motivating people to achieve the bank objectives or it can lead to either bad or good consequence according the way it applied in various type of organization.
Budgeting is essentially concerned with establishing a t plan or target of performance which co-ordinates all the activities of the business and calculating differences or various and analysising the reason for them. One general purpose of budget in bank, sole proprietor and government is to enable them to plan their financial resources which will be consumed and generated during the course of the budget period
The period generally adopted for budgeting is one year and this usually coincides with the financial year of the bank.
Finally, in introducing an effective budgeting strategy, management has to make penetrating critical and uncompromising study of the business to determine its strength and weakness in relation to what it is trying to achieve. Budgets should be capable of change when circumstances changes so that the yardstick is a realistic attainable one. The strategy should operate to assist motivation and not simply be used as a bigstick or a pressure device.
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
It is generally agreed that every business organization, government and sole-proprietors should employ the principle and concept of budgeting control as a tool in achieving set goals. Consequently, for this research work, the following are the problems which this study hope to provide solution to:
The inability of banks to property forecast expenditure matched to revenue given the instable economy and monetary policies generating therefrom
Inability of the bank to state a detailed plan of action thereby reducing uncertainty.
Inadequate policies formulated for budget implementation in union bank for budget Ogui road branch .
Budgeting will lower moral and productivity if unrealistic targets are set and if it is use as a pressure tactic.
The inability of the bank to know fully which future cost it will incure in rending certain service to the public and also the rev to be received as a result of jobs carries in each department .
Lack of well-oriented programs to felicitates the need to use budget as a control strategy.
PURPOSE OF RESEARCH STUDY.
There is a strong belief that good operation of budgeting controls os great value to Union Bank planning and control are indispensable in the banking industry.
The following are the purpose of the study:
To know the type of budgets and budgetary control strategy applied.
To ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of the strategy applied
To ascertain how budgeting and budgetary control strategy assist management in decision making.
To highlight the problems in the present day system of budgeting in Union Bank 4 need be, the ways of improving on its budgeting.
Efforts will be made to compare the accepted rules of budgeting control strategy as contained in the view of the related literature and what obtained in practice as discovered from data collection.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
For the purpose of this research, the following assumptions were made:
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): Banks do note run some motivational programme so as to avoid conflict and also budgeting as a control strategy do not help banks to achieve efficiency in its operation.
SCOPE / LIMITATION
The study is a case study of Union Bank Ogui Road Branch Enugu. The time period under consideration is four (4) years that is between 1994 to 1998.
It is worth mentioning that personnel problem affecting this bank are not within the scope of this study expect where such problem directly related to budgetary control.
In general it is also worth mentioning that for practical purpose it would be impossible to discuss all these areas in department in this research. It should be noted that out of the so many tools of control employed by Union Bank to achieve their various objective this study is only concerned with the budget aspect of it.
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